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Vet. Sci. 2017, 4(1), 6; doi:10.3390/vetsci4010006

Review on Usage of Vancomycin in Livestock and Humans: Maintaining Its Efficacy, Prevention of Resistance and Alternative Therapy

1
Human Recourse Department, University Grants Commission, 20, Ward Place, Colombo 07 10000, Sri Lanka
2
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University Mihintale, Mihintale 50008, Sri Lanka
3
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Rajarata University Mihintale, Mihintale 50008, Sri Lanka
4
Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Patrick Butaye
Received: 12 November 2016 / Revised: 5 January 2017 / Accepted: 22 January 2017 / Published: 26 January 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [436 KB, uploaded 26 January 2017]   |  

Abstract

Vancomycin is one of the “last-line” classes of antibiotics used in the treatment of life-threatening infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Even though vancomycin was discovered in the 1950s, it was widely used after the 1980s for the treatment of infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococci, as the prevalence of these strains were increased. However, it is currently evident that vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci have developed for various reasons, including the use of avaparcin—an analog of vancomycin—as a feed additive in livestock. Therefore, prophylactic and empiric use of antibiotics and their analogues need to be minimized. Herein we discuss the rational use of vancomycin in treating humans, horses, farm animals, and pet animals such as dogs, cats, and rabbits. In present day context, more attention should be paid to the prevention of the emergence of resistance to antibiotics in order to maintain their efficacy. In order to prevent emergence of resistance, proper guidance for the responsible use of antimicrobials is indispensable. Therefore, almost all stakeholders who use antibiotics should have an in-depth understanding of the antibiotic that they use. As such, it is imperative to be aware of the important aspects of vancomycin. In the present review, efforts have been made to discuss the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, indications, emergence of resistance, control of resistance, adverse effects, and alternative therapy for vancomycin. View Full-Text
Keywords: vancomycin; broad view; veterinary use at a glance; rational use; alternatives vancomycin; broad view; veterinary use at a glance; rational use; alternatives
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wijesekara, P.N.K.; Kumbukgolla, W.W.; Jayaweera, J.A.A.S.; Rawat, D. Review on Usage of Vancomycin in Livestock and Humans: Maintaining Its Efficacy, Prevention of Resistance and Alternative Therapy. Vet. Sci. 2017, 4, 6.

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