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Beverages 2017, 3(2), 20; doi:10.3390/beverages3020020

Process Parameters Affecting the Synthesis of Natural Flavors by Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) during the Production of a Non-Alcoholic Beverage

1
Institute of Bioprocess Engineering and Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Applied Sciences Mittelhessen, Wiesenstrasse 14, 35390 Giessen, Germany
2
Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology (IME), Bioresources Project Group, Winchesterstrasse 2, 35394 Giessen, Germany
3
Institute of Food Chemistry and Food Biotechnology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 17, 35392 Giessen, Germany
4
Department of Chemical Engineering, Kansas State University, Durland Hall 1005, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shao Quan Liu
Received: 28 December 2016 / Revised: 23 April 2017 / Accepted: 23 April 2017 / Published: 27 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fermented Beverages)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2751 KB, uploaded 27 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

A novel alcohol-free beverage with a fruity, slightly sour, sweetish, fresh, and plum-like flavor was produced by incorporating the edible mushroom shiitake (Lentinula edodes) into the fermentation process. Shiitake pellets were used as a biocatalyst to promote the synthesis of the fruity esters methyl 2-methylbutanoate and 2-phenylethanol from amino acids and an organic acid present in the wort. We investigated the impact of two critical process parameters (volumetric power input and inoculum concentration) on the morphology of, and flavor production by, the shiitake pellets in a 1 L stirred bioreactor. Increasing the volumetric power input and biomass concentration influenced the morphology of the pellets and promoted the production of the most important flavor compound methyl 2-methylbutanoate in the beverage. Furthermore the worty off-flavor methional was degraded during the cultivation in stirred bioreactor by shiitake pellets. These findings provide useful information to facilitate the scale-up of the biotransformation and fermentation process in bioreactors. View Full-Text
Keywords: shiitake; volumetric power input; inoculum concentration; natural flavor; stirred bioreactor; non-alcoholic beverage; methyl 2-methylbutanoate shiitake; volumetric power input; inoculum concentration; natural flavor; stirred bioreactor; non-alcoholic beverage; methyl 2-methylbutanoate
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Özdemir, S.; Heerd, D.; Quitmann, H.; Zhang, Y.; Fraatz, M.A.; Zorn, H.; Czermak, P. Process Parameters Affecting the Synthesis of Natural Flavors by Shiitake (Lentinula edodes) during the Production of a Non-Alcoholic Beverage. Beverages 2017, 3, 20.

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