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Beverages 2017, 3(2), 21; doi:10.3390/beverages3020021

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography as Complementary Methods for the Analysis of Beer Samples

Department of Chemistry Biochemistry & Physics, Marist College, 3399 North Road, Poughkeepsie, NY 12601, USA
Process NMR Associates, 87A Sand Pit Road, Danbury, CT 06810, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Angel A. Carbonell-Barrachina and Laura Vázquez-Araújo
Received: 10 August 2016 / Revised: 5 April 2017 / Accepted: 23 April 2017 / Published: 27 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beer)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [634 KB, uploaded 27 April 2017]   |  


Chemical analysis of the organic components in beer has applications to quality control, authenticity and improvements to the flavor characteristics and brewing process. This study aims to show the complementary nature of two instrumental techniques which, in combination, can identify and quantify a number of organic components in a beer sample. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) was used to provide concentrations of 26 different organic compounds including alcohols, organic acids, carbohydrates, and amino acids. Calorie content was also estimated for the samples. NMR data for ethanol concentrations were validated by comparison to a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) method. Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) was used to identify a range of volatile compounds such as alcohols, esters and hop-derived aroma compounds. A simple and inexpensive conversion of a Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector (GC FID) instrument to allow the use of Solid-Phase Microextraction was found to be useful for the quantification of volatile esters. View Full-Text
Keywords: beer; nuclear magnetic resonance; solid-phase microextraction; gas chromatography beer; nuclear magnetic resonance; solid-phase microextraction; gas chromatography

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Johnson, S.R.; Soprano, S.E.; Wickham, L.M.; Fitzgerald, N.; Edwards, J.C. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography as Complementary Methods for the Analysis of Beer Samples. Beverages 2017, 3, 21.

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