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Beverages 2017, 3(1), 14; doi:10.3390/beverages3010014

Small Prizes Increased Plain Milk and Vegetable Selection by Elementary School Children without Adversely Affecting Total Milk Purchase

College of Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614, USA
Center for Better Health and Nutrition, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
Norwood City School District, Norwood, OH 45212, USA
James M. Anderson Center for Health Systems Excellence, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 45229, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alessandra Durazzo
Received: 3 October 2016 / Revised: 5 February 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 17 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Milk: Bioactive Components and Role in Human Nutrition)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1095 KB, uploaded 17 February 2017]   |  


(1) Background: Pediatric obesity continues to be a major public health issue. Poor food selection in the school cafeteria is a risk factor. Chocolate or strawberry flavored milk is favored by the majority of elementary school students. Previous health promotion efforts have led to increased selection of plain milk, but may compromise total milk purchased. In our study, we examined the effectiveness of small prizes as incentives to improve healthy food and beverage selection by elementary school students; (2) Methods: In a small Midwestern school district, small prizes were given to elementary school students who selected a “Power Plate” (PP), the healthful combination of a plain milk, a fruit, a vegetable and an entrée with whole grain over two academic school years; (3) Results: PP selection increased from 0.05 per student to 0.19, a 271% increase (p < 0.001). All healthful foods had increased selection with plain milk having the greatest increase, 0.098 per student to 0.255, a 159% increase (p < 0.001); (4) Total milk purchased increased modestly from 0.916 to 0.956 per student (p = 0.000331). Conclusion: Giving small prizes as a reward for healthful food selection substantially improves healthful food selection and the effect is sustainable over two academic years. View Full-Text
Keywords: milk; obesity; small prizes milk; obesity; small prizes

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Emerson, M.; Hudgens, M.; Barnes, A.; Hiller, E.; Robison, D.; Kipp, R.; Bradshaw, U.; Siegel, R. Small Prizes Increased Plain Milk and Vegetable Selection by Elementary School Children without Adversely Affecting Total Milk Purchase. Beverages 2017, 3, 14.

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