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Hydrology 2016, 3(4), 44; doi:10.3390/hydrology3040044

Hydrodynamic Modeling of Nokoué Lake in Benin

1
Laboratory of Applied Hydrology, University of Abomey-Calavi, 229 Cotonou, Benin
2
Laboratory of Modeling in Hydraulics and Environment, University of Tunis El Manar, 1002 Tunis, Tunisia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Angelica Tarpanelli
Received: 1 May 2016 / Revised: 3 December 2016 / Accepted: 6 December 2016 / Published: 15 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Floods and Landslide Prediction)
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Abstract

Nokoué Lake is a complex ecosystem, the understanding of which requires control of physical processes that have occurred. For this, the Surface Water Modeling System (SMS) hydrodynamic model was calibrated and validated on the water depth data. The results of these simulations show a good match between the simulated and observed data for bottom roughness and turbulent exchange coefficients, of 0.02 m−1/3·s and 20 m2/s respectively. Once the ability of the model to simulate the hydrodynamics of the lake is testified, the model is used to simulate water surface elevation, exchanged flows and velocities. The simulation shows that the tidal amplitude is maximum at the inlet of the channel and decreases gradually from the inlet towards the lagoon’s main body. The propagation of the tidal wave is characterized by the dephasing and the flattening of the amplitude tide, which increases as we move away from the channel. This dephasing is characterized by a high and low tides delay of about 1 or 4 h and also depends on the tide amplitude and location. The velocities inside the lake are very low and do not exceed 0.03 m/s. The highest are obtained at the entrance of the channel. In a flood period, in contrast with the low-water period, incoming flows are higher than outflows, reinforced by the amplitude of the tide. An average renewal time of the lake has been estimated and corresponds during a flood period to 30 days for an average amplitude tide and 26.3 days on a high amplitude tide. In a low water period it is 40.2 days for an average amplitude tide and 30 days for a high amplitude tide. From the results obtained, several measures must be taken into account for the rational management of the lake water resources. These include a dam construction at the lake upstream, to control the river flows, and the dredging of the channel to facilitate exchanges with the sea. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrodynamics; Nokoué Lake; model; simulation; flow; tide renewal time hydrodynamics; Nokoué Lake; model; simulation; flow; tide renewal time
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zandagba, J.; Moussa, M.; Obada, E.; Afouda, A. Hydrodynamic Modeling of Nokoué Lake in Benin. Hydrology 2016, 3, 44.

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