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Medicines 2017, 4(3), 47;

The Chemotaxonomy of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis) Based on the Volatile Constituents

Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: João Rocha and James D. Adams
Received: 2 May 2017 / Revised: 10 June 2017 / Accepted: 26 June 2017 / Published: 29 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Herbal Medicines and Functional Foods)
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Background: Common sage (Salvia officinalis) is a popular culinary and medicinal herb. A literature survey has revealed that sage oils can vary widely in their chemical compositions. The purpose of this study was to examine sage essential oil from different sources/origins and to define the possible chemotypes of sage oil. Methods: Three different samples of sage leaf essential oil have been obtained and analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. A hierarchical cluster analysis was carried out on 185 sage oil compositions reported in the literature as well as the three samples in this study. Results: The major components of the three sage oils were the oxygenated monoterpenoids α-thujone (17.2–27.4%), 1,8-cineole (11.9–26.9%), and camphor (12.8–21.4%). The cluster analysis revealed five major chemotypes of sage oil, with the most common being a α-thujone > camphor > 1,8-cineole chemotype, of which the three samples in this study belong. The other chemotypes are an α-humulene-rich chemotype, a β-thujone-rich chemotype, a 1,8-cineole/camphor chemotype, and a sclareol/α-thujone chemotype. Conclusions: Most sage oils belonged to the “typical”, α-thujone > camphor > 1,8-cineole, chemotype, but the essential oil compositions do vary widely and may have a profound effect on flavor and fragrance profiles as well as biological activities. There are currently no studies correlating sage oil composition with fragrance descriptions or with biological activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: sage oil; chemical composition; cluster analysis sage oil; chemical composition; cluster analysis

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Craft, J.D.; Satyal, P.; Setzer, W.N. The Chemotaxonomy of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis) Based on the Volatile Constituents. Medicines 2017, 4, 47.

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