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Medicines 2016, 3(3), 23; doi:10.3390/medicines3030023

Characterisation of Bone Beneficial Components from Australian Wallaby Bone

1
School of Life Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo 2007, NSW, Australia
2
School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo 2007, NSW, Australia
3
Proteomics Core Facility, Faculty of Science, University of Technology Sydney, Ultimo 2007, NSW, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Gerhard Litscher and João Rocha
Received: 9 July 2016 / Revised: 1 August 2016 / Accepted: 23 August 2016 / Published: 26 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Herbal Medicines and Functional Foods)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1953 KB, uploaded 26 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

Background: Osteoporosis is a condition in which the bones become brittle, increasing the risk of fractures. Complementary medicines have traditionally used animal bones for managing bone disorders, such as osteoporosis. This study aimed to discover new natural products for these types of conditions by determining mineral and protein content of bone extracts derived from the Australian wallaby. Methods: Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis were used for mineral tests, proteome analysis was using LC/MS/MS and the effects of wallaby bone extracts (WBE)s on calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity were evaluated in osteogenic cells derived from adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs). Results: Concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were 26.21% and 14.72% in WBE respectively. Additionally, minerals found were wide in variety and high in concentration, while heavy metal concentrations of aluminium, iron, zinc and other elements were at safe levels for human consumption. Proteome analysis showed that extracts contained high amounts of bone remodelling proteins, such as osteomodulin, osteopontin and osteoglycin. Furthermore, in vitro evaluation of WBEs showed increased deposition of calcium in osteoblasts with enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity in differentiated adipose-derived stem cells. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that wallaby bone extracts possess proteins and minerals beneficial for bone metabolism. WBEs may therefore be used for developing natural products for conditions such as osteoporosis and further investigation to understand biomolecular mechanism by which WBEs prevent osteoporosis is warranted. View Full-Text
Keywords: wallaby bone; mineral components; protein components; bone remodelling proteins; osteoporosis wallaby bone; mineral components; protein components; bone remodelling proteins; osteoporosis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Lao, W.; Jin, X.; Tan, Y.; Xiao, L.; Padula, M.P.; Bishop, D.P.; Reedy, B.; Ong, M.; Kamal, M.A.; Qu, X. Characterisation of Bone Beneficial Components from Australian Wallaby Bone. Medicines 2016, 3, 23.

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