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Toxics 2017, 5(3), 22; doi:10.3390/toxics5030022

Occupational Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA): A Reality That Still Needs to Be Unveiled

1,2,3,* , 1,3,4
and
1,4
1
GIAS-ESTeSL, Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde de Lisboa, Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa, 1990-096 Lisbon, Portugal
2
Landscape, Environment, Agriculture and Food (LEAF), Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa, Portugal
3
GIGM-ESTeSL, Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde de Lisboa, Instituto Politécnico de Lisboa, 1990-096 Lisbon, Portugal
4
Centro de Investigação em Saúde Pública, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, 1600-560 Lisbon, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jose L. Domingo
Received: 18 July 2017 / Revised: 25 August 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [298 KB, uploaded 13 September 2017]

Abstract

Bisphenol A (BPA), 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) propane, is one of the most utilized industrial chemicals worldwide, with the ability to interfere with/or mimic estrogenic hormones with associated biological responses. Environmental human exposure to this endocrine disruptor, mostly through oral intake, is considered a generalized phenomenon, particularly in developed countries. However, in the context of occupational exposure, non-dietary exposure sources (e.g., air and contact) cannot be underestimated. Here, we performed a review of the literature on BPA occupational exposure and associated health effects. Relevantly, the authors only identified 19 studies from 2009 to 2017 that demonstrate that occupationally exposed individuals have significantly higher detected BPA levels than environmentally exposed populations and that the detection rate of serum BPA increases in relation to the time of exposure. However, only 12 studies performed in China have correlated potential health effects with detected BPA levels, and shown that BPA-exposed male workers are at greater risk of male sexual dysfunction across all domains of sexual function; also, endocrine disruption, alterations to epigenetic marks (DNA methylation) and epidemiological evidence have shown significant effects on the offspring of parents exposed to BPA during pregnancy. This overview raises awareness of the dramatic and consistent increase in the production and exposure of BPA and creates urgency to assess the actual exposure of workers to this xenoestrogen and to evaluate potential associated adverse health effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: bisphenol A (BPA); endocrine disruptor; genotoxicity; occupational exposure; exposure assessment; health effects bisphenol A (BPA); endocrine disruptor; genotoxicity; occupational exposure; exposure assessment; health effects
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ribeiro, E.; Ladeira, C.; Viegas, S. Occupational Exposure to Bisphenol A (BPA): A Reality That Still Needs to Be Unveiled. Toxics 2017, 5, 22.

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