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Toxics 2017, 5(2), 10; doi:10.3390/toxics5020010

Pharmaceutical Wastewater Effluent—Source of Contaminants of Emerging Concern: Phytotoxicity of Metronidazole to Soybean (Glycine max)

Department of Public Health Sciences, College of Health and Social Services , New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001, USA
Academic Editor: David Bellinger
Received: 1 January 2017 / Revised: 28 February 2017 / Accepted: 24 March 2017 / Published: 2 April 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [452 KB, uploaded 6 April 2017]   |  

Abstract

Industrial discharge of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) into the environment in some middle- and low-income countries is not sufficiently regulated. The phytotoxicity of metronidazole (FLAGYL)—one of the most commonly used over the counter (OTC) antibiotics, to soybean (Glycine max) is investigated. Relative growth rate (RGR) expressed in gram per gram per day (gg−1d−1) was applied to plants destructively harvested at maturity (42 d), to determine the toxicological impact. Differences between mean RGR of the three groups were performed at 0.05 significance level. Multiple comparisons suggest that there was a statistical significant difference among mean RGR for all treatment groups. Metronidazole is toxic to soybean plants (Glycine max) based on dose-response criterion. There is a need to enforce treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater effluent by Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Companies (PMCs) before discharge into the environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs); contaminant of emerging concern; effluent; Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP); metronidazole; Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Companies (PMCs); Relative Growth Rate (RGR); soybean (Glycine max); wastewater Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (APIs); contaminant of emerging concern; effluent; Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP); metronidazole; Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Companies (PMCs); Relative Growth Rate (RGR); soybean (Glycine max); wastewater
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yakubu, O.H. Pharmaceutical Wastewater Effluent—Source of Contaminants of Emerging Concern: Phytotoxicity of Metronidazole to Soybean (Glycine max). Toxics 2017, 5, 10.

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