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Toxics 2015, 3(3), 249-258; doi:10.3390/toxics3030249

Modeling Short-Term Maximum Individual Exposure from Airborne Hazardous Releases in Urban Environments. Part I: Validation of a Deterministic Model with Field Experimental Data

1
Environmental Research Laboratory, INRASTES, NCSR Demokritos, Patriarchou Grigoriou & Neapoleos Str., 15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Greece
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Western Macedonia, Sialvera & Bakola Str., 50100 Kozani, Greece
3
School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, E1 4NS London, UK
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Martí Nadal
Received: 15 January 2014 / Revised: 11 June 2015 / Accepted: 16 June 2015 / Published: 25 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment of Environmental Contaminants)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [367 KB, uploaded 25 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

The release of airborne hazardous substances in the atmosphere has a direct effect on human health as, during the inhalation, an amount of concentration is inserted through the respiratory system into the human body, which can cause serious or even irreparable damage in health. One of the key problems in such cases is the prediction of the maximum individual exposure. Current state of the art methods, which are based on the concentration cumulative distribution function and require the knowledge of the concentration variance and the intermittency factor, have limitations. Recently, authors proposed a deterministic approach relating maximum individual exposure to parameters such as the fluctuation intensity and the concentration integral time scale. The purpose of the first part of this study is to validate the deterministic approach with the extensive dataset of the MUST (Mock Urban Setting Test) field experiment. This dataset includes 81 trials, which practically cover various atmospheric conditions and stability classes and contains in total 4004 non-zero concentration sensor data with time resolutions of 0.01–0.02 s. The results strengthen the usefulness of the deterministic model in predicting short-term maximum individual exposure. Another important output is the estimation of the methodology uncertainty involved. View Full-Text
Keywords: maximum individual exposure; field measurements; turbulence integral time scale; model optimization maximum individual exposure; field measurements; turbulence integral time scale; model optimization
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Efthimiou, G.C.; Bartzis, J.G.; Palaiokostas, M. Modeling Short-Term Maximum Individual Exposure from Airborne Hazardous Releases in Urban Environments. Part I: Validation of a Deterministic Model with Field Experimental Data. Toxics 2015, 3, 249-258.

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