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Modeling Short-Term Maximum Individual Exposure from Airborne Hazardous Releases in Urban Environments. Part I: Validation of a Deterministic Model with Field Experimental Data
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Toxics 2015, 3(3), 259-267; doi:10.3390/toxics3030259

Modelling Short-Term Maximum Individual Exposure from Airborne Hazardous Releases in Urban Environments. Part ΙI: Validation of a Deterministic Model with Wind Tunnel Experimental Data

1
Environmental Research Laboratory, INRASTES, NCSR Demokritos, Patriarchou Grigoriou & Neapoleos Str., 15310 Aghia Paraskevi, Greece
2
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Western Macedonia, Sialvera & Bakola Str., 50100 Kozani, Greece
3
Meteorological Institute, KlimaCampus, University of Hamburg, Bundesstrasse 55, D-20146 Hamburg, Germany
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marta Schuhmacher
Received: 15 January 2014 / Revised: 9 June 2015 / Accepted: 11 June 2015 / Published: 26 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment of Environmental Contaminants)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [323 KB, uploaded 26 June 2015]   |  

Abstract

The capability to predict short-term maximum individual exposure is very important for several applications including, for example, deliberate/accidental release of hazardous substances, odour fluctuations or material flammability level exceedance. Recently, authors have proposed a simple approach relating maximum individual exposure to parameters such as the fluctuation intensity and the concentration integral time scale. In the first part of this study (Part I), the methodology was validated against field measurements, which are governed by the natural variability of atmospheric boundary conditions. In Part II of this study, an in-depth validation of the approach is performed using reference data recorded under truly stationary and well documented flow conditions. For this reason, a boundary-layer wind-tunnel experiment was used. The experimental dataset includes 196 time-resolved concentration measurements which detect the dispersion from a continuous point source within an urban model of semi-idealized complexity. The data analysis allowed the improvement of an important model parameter. The model performed very well in predicting the maximum individual exposure, presenting a factor of two of observations equal to 95%. For large time intervals, an exponential correction term has been introduced in the model based on the experimental observations. The new model is capable of predicting all time intervals giving an overall factor of two of observations equal to 100%. View Full-Text
Keywords: dosage; individual exposure; turbulence integral time scale, wind tunnel measurements; validation dosage; individual exposure; turbulence integral time scale, wind tunnel measurements; validation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Efthimiou, G.C.; Bartzis, J.G.; Berbekar, E.; Hertwig, D.; Harms, F.; Leitl, B. Modelling Short-Term Maximum Individual Exposure from Airborne Hazardous Releases in Urban Environments. Part ΙI: Validation of a Deterministic Model with Wind Tunnel Experimental Data. Toxics 2015, 3, 259-267.

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