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Toxics 2014, 2(2), 188-225; doi:10.3390/toxics2020188

Human and Veterinary Antibiotics Used in Portugal—A Ranking for Ecosurveillance

1
Department of Veterinary Medicine-Escola Universitária Vasco da Gama, Av. José R. Sousa Fernandes, Coimbra 3020-210, Portugal
2
Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, Largo Marquês de Pombal, Coimbra 3004-517, Portugal
3
Group of Health Surveillance, Center of Pharmaceutical Studies, University of Coimbra, Polo III, Azinhaga de Sta Comba, Coimbra 3000-548, Portugal
4
INFARMED, I.P.-National Authority of Medicines and Health Products, Lisboa 1749-004, Portugal
5
Departament of Pharmacological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon 1649-003, Portugal
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 March 2014 / Revised: 23 April 2014 / Accepted: 13 May 2014 / Published: 23 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Risk Assessment of Environmental Contaminants)
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Abstract

Antibiotics represent a pharmacotherapeutic group widely used in both human and veterinary medicine for which ecosurveillance has been continually recommended. It is urgent to rank the antibiotics and highlight those that may pose potential risk to the environment, a key step for the risk management. The absence of this type of contributions applied to the Portuguese reality supported the idea of compiling the data presented herein. With such purpose the most recent and representative data is used to draw a comparative contribution of each antimicrobial classes according to their intended use, i.e., in human versus veterinary medicine. The aim was to assess: (1) the amount and patterns of antimicrobials usage between human and animals; (2) the qualitative comparison between the antimicrobial classes used in each practice (human and veterinary) or specific use; (3) the potential to enter the environment, metabolism, mode of action and environmental occurrences. This manuscript will, thus, identify priorities for the environmental risk assessment, considering the ranking of the antimicrobials by their usage and potential environmental exposure. Ultimately, this study will serve as a basis for future monitoring programs, guiding the policy of regulatory agencies. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotics; consumption; ecosurveillance; environmental occurrence; human medicine; risk ranking; pharmacokinetic features; Portugal; veterinary medicine antibiotics; consumption; ecosurveillance; environmental occurrence; human medicine; risk ranking; pharmacokinetic features; Portugal; veterinary medicine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Almeida, A.; Duarte, S.; Nunes, R.; Rocha, H.; Pena, A.; Meisel, L. Human and Veterinary Antibiotics Used in Portugal—A Ranking for Ecosurveillance. Toxics 2014, 2, 188-225.

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