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Foods 2017, 6(9), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6090073

Cytotoxicity of the Essential Oil of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) from Tajikistan

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Avicenna Tajik State Medical University, Rudaki 139, Dushanbe 734003, Tajikistan
2
Institute of Pharmacy and Molecular Biotechnology, Heidelberg University, Im Neuenheimer Feld 364, Heidelberg 69120, Germany
3
Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 16 August 2017 / Published: 28 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application of Essential Oils in Food Systems)
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Abstract

The essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is rich in lipophilic secondary metabolites, which can easily cross cell membranes by free diffusion. Several constituents of the oil carry reactive carbonyl groups in their ring structures. Carbonyl groups can react with amino groups of amino acid residues in proteins or in nucleotides of DNA to form Schiff’s bases. Fennel essential oil is rich in anise aldehyde, which should interfere with molecular targets in cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oil of fennel growing in Tajikistan. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the main components of F. vulgare oil were trans-anethole (36.8%); α-ethyl-p-methoxy-benzyl alcohol (9.1%); p-anisaldehyde (7.7%); carvone (4.9%); 1-phenyl-penta-2,4-diyne (4.8%) and fenchyl butanoate (4.2%). The oil exhibited moderate antioxidant activities. The potential cytotoxic activity was studied against HeLa (human cervical cancer), Caco-2 (human colorectal adenocarcinoma), MCF-7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), CCRF-CEM (human T lymphoblast leukaemia) and CEM/ADR5000 (adriamycin resistant leukaemia) cancer cell lines; IC50 values were between 30–210 mg L−1 and thus exhibited low cytotoxicity as compared to cytotoxic reference compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: Foeniculum vulgare; essential oil; trans-anethole; anise aldehyde; cytotoxicity; cluster analysis Foeniculum vulgare; essential oil; trans-anethole; anise aldehyde; cytotoxicity; cluster analysis
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Sharopov, F.; Valiev, A.; Satyal, P.; Gulmurodov, I.; Yusufi, S.; Setzer, W.N.; Wink, M. Cytotoxicity of the Essential Oil of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) from Tajikistan. Foods 2017, 6, 73.

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