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Foods 2016, 5(4), 70; doi:10.3390/foods5040070

Essential Oil Characterization of Thymus vulgaris from Various Geographical Locations

1
Alchemy Aromatic LLC, 621 Park East Blvd., New Albany, IN 47150, USA
2
Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Angel A. Carbonell-Barrachina
Received: 1 September 2016 / Revised: 20 October 2016 / Accepted: 24 October 2016 / Published: 27 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Flavour Volatiles of Foods)
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Abstract

Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) is a commonly used flavoring agent and medicinal herb. Several chemotypes of thyme, based on essential oil compositions, have been established, including (1) linalool; (2) borneol; (3) geraniol; (4) sabinene hydrate; (5) thymol; (6) carvacrol, as well as a number of multiple-component chemotypes. In this work, two different T. vulgaris essential oils were obtained from France and two were obtained from Serbia. The chemical compositions were determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. In addition, chiral gas chromatography was used to determine the enantiomeric compositions of several monoterpenoid components. The T. vulgaris oil from Nyons, France was of the linalool chemotype (linalool, 76.2%; linalyl acetate, 14.3%); the oil sample from Jablanicki, Serbia was of the geraniol chemotype (geraniol, 59.8%; geranyl acetate, 16.7%); the sample from Pomoravje District, Serbia was of the sabinene hydrate chemotype (cis-sabinene hydrate, 30.8%; trans-sabinene hydrate, 5.0%); and the essential oil from Richerenches, France was of the thymol chemotype (thymol, 47.1%; p-cymene, 20.1%). A cluster analysis based on the compositions of these essential oils as well as 81 additional T. vulgaris essential oils reported in the literature revealed 20 different chemotypes. This work represents the first chiral analysis of T. vulgaris monoterpenoids and a comprehensive description of the different chemotypes of T. vulgaris. View Full-Text
Keywords: chiral gas chromatography; mass spectrometry; hierarchical cluster analysis; antifungal activity; enantiomeric distribution chiral gas chromatography; mass spectrometry; hierarchical cluster analysis; antifungal activity; enantiomeric distribution
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Satyal, P.; Murray, B.L.; McFeeters, R.L.; Setzer, W.N. Essential Oil Characterization of Thymus vulgaris from Various Geographical Locations. Foods 2016, 5, 70.

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