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Foods 2016, 5(4), 69; doi:10.3390/foods5040069

Gluten-Free Bread: Influence of Sourdough and Compressed Yeast on Proofing and Baking Properties

1
Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, via G. Celoria 2, 20133 Milan, Italy
2
European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Directorate for Nuclear Safety and Security, P.O. Box 23 40, 76125 Karlsruhe, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Francisco J. Morales
Received: 30 July 2016 / Revised: 15 October 2016 / Accepted: 18 October 2016 / Published: 23 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gluten-Free Foods)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [851 KB, uploaded 23 October 2016]   |  

Abstract

The use of sourdough is the oldest biotechnological process to leaven baked goods, and it represents a suitable technology to improve traditional bread texture, aroma, and shelf life. A limited number of studies concerning the use of sourdough in gluten-free (GF) breadmaking have been published in comparison to those on traditional bread. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of GF breads obtained by using a previously in-lab developed GF-sourdough (SD), compressed yeast (CY; Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or their mixture (SDCY) as leavening agents; more specifically, it aims to confirm the findings of a previous studies and to further improve (both in terms of recipe and process) the features of the resulting GF breads. Dough pH and rheological properties were measured. Fresh and stored breads were characterized for weight, height, specific volume, crust and crumb color, moisture, water activity, crumb hardness, and porosity. The combination SDCY was effective in improving bread volume and softness when compared to SD only. Furthermore, SD- and SDCY-crumbs exhibited a less crumbly behavior during storage (69 h, 25 °C, 60% of relative humidity) in comparison to CY-breads. This study confirms the positive effect of SD in GF breadmaking, in particular when used in combination with CY. View Full-Text
Keywords: gluten-free; sourdough; compressed yeast; dough; rheology; leavening; bread; texture; breadmaking; Image Analysis gluten-free; sourdough; compressed yeast; dough; rheology; leavening; bread; texture; breadmaking; Image Analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cappa, C.; Lucisano, M.; Raineri, A.; Fongaro, L.; Foschino, R.; Mariotti, M. Gluten-Free Bread: Influence of Sourdough and Compressed Yeast on Proofing and Baking Properties. Foods 2016, 5, 69.

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