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Foods 2016, 5(1), 12; doi:10.3390/foods5010012

Food Odours Direct Specific Appetite

Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 8129, 6700 EV Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Hollie A. Raynor and Heather J. Leidy
Received: 1 December 2015 / Revised: 2 February 2016 / Accepted: 5 February 2016 / Published: 22 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food and Appetite)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [898 KB, uploaded 22 February 2016]   |  

Abstract

Olfactory food cues were found to increase appetite for products similar in taste. We aimed to replicate this phenomenon for taste (sweet/savoury), determine whether it extends to energy density (high/low) as well, and uncover whether this effect is modulated by hunger state. Twenty-nine healthy-weight females smelled four odours differing in the energy density and taste they signalled, one non-food odour, and one odourless solution (control), in random order, for three minutes each. Appetite for 15 food products was rated in the following two minutes. Mixed model analyses revealed that exposure to an odour signalling a specific taste (respectively sweet, savoury) led to a greater appetite for congruent food products (sweet/savoury) compared to incongruent food products (savoury p < 0.001; sweet p < 0.001) or neutral food products (p = 0.02; p = 0.003). A similar pattern was present for the energy-density category (respectively high-energy dense, low-energy dense) signalled by the odours (low-energy products p < 0.001; high-energy products p = 0.008). Hunger state did not have a significant impact on sensory-specific appetite. These results suggest that exposure to food odours increases appetite for congruent products, in terms of both taste and energy density, irrespective of hunger state. We speculate that food odours steer towards intake of products with a congruent macronutrient composition. View Full-Text
Keywords: sensory-specific appetite; olfaction; taste; energy density sensory-specific appetite; olfaction; taste; energy density
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zoon, H.F.A.; de Graaf, C.; Boesveldt, S. Food Odours Direct Specific Appetite. Foods 2016, 5, 12.

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