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Foods 2015, 4(3), 338-348; doi:10.3390/foods4030338

Trifolium pratense and T. repens (Leguminosae): Edible Flower Extracts as Functional Ingredients

Department of Pharmacy, Health and Nutritional Sciences, University of Calabria, Rende (CS) 87036, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christopher J. Smith
Received: 24 May 2015 / Revised: 17 August 2015 / Accepted: 18 August 2015 / Published: 21 August 2015
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Abstract

Trifolium pratense (red clover) and T. repens (white clover) edible flowers were investigated for their chemical profile and health properties. The total phenols and flavonoids contents were evaluated. Quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, rutin, and myricetin were used as markers and quantified by HPLC. The antioxidant effects were investigated by using different in vitro assays. Moreover, α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase inhibitory activities were evaluated. T. repens flowers extract showed a good radical scavenging activity in both DPPH and ABTS tests with IC50 values of 10.3 and 21.4 μg/mL, respectively. White clover extract demonstrated promising α-amylase and lipase inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 25.0 and 1.3 μg/mL, respectively. The obtained results support the use of Trifolium flowers as healthy food ingredients. View Full-Text
Keywords: Trifolium; clover; flavonoids; antioxidant activity; α-amylase; α-glucosidase; lipase Trifolium; clover; flavonoids; antioxidant activity; α-amylase; α-glucosidase; lipase
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tundis, R.; Marrelli, M.; Conforti, F.; Tenuta, M.C.; Bonesi, M.; Menichini, F.; Loizzo, M. Trifolium pratense and T. repens (Leguminosae): Edible Flower Extracts as Functional Ingredients. Foods 2015, 4, 338-348.

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