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Foods 2015, 4(2), 208-228; doi:10.3390/foods4020208

Chemical Profile, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Algerian Citrus Essential Oils and Their Application in Sardina pilchardus

Laboratory of Food Quality and Food Safety, Department of Food Science, University Mouloud MAMMERI, BP 17, Tizi-Ouzou 15000, Algeria
Academic Editor: Christopher J. Smith
Received: 14 February 2015 / Accepted: 7 May 2015 / Published: 5 June 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiology Safety of Meat Products)
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Abstract

Stored fish are frequently contaminated by foodborne pathogens. Lipid oxidation and microbial growth during storage are also important factors in the shelf-life of fresh fish. In order to ensure the safety of fish items, there is a need for control measures which are effective through natural inhibitory antimicrobials. It is also necessary to determine the efficacy of these products for fish protection against oxidative damage, to avoid deleterious changes and loss of commercial and nutritional value. Some synthetic chemicals used as preservatives have been reported to cause harmful effects to the environment and the consumers. The present investigation reports on the extraction by hydrodistillation and the chemical composition of three citrus peel essential oils (EOs): orange (Citrus sinensis L.), lemon (Citrus limonum L.) and bergamot (Citrus aurantium L.) from Algeria. Yields for EOs were between 0.50% and 0.70%. The chemical composition of these EOs was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that the studied oils are made up mainly of limonene (77.37%) for orange essential oil (EO); linalyl acetate (37.28%), linalool (23.36%), for bergamot EO; and finally limonene (51.39%), β-pinene (17.04%) and γ-terpinene (13.46%) for lemon EO. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the EOs was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) using the agar diffusion technique. Results revealed that lemon EO had more antibacterial effects than that from other EOs. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) showed a range of 0.25–0.40 μL/mL. Lemon and bergamot citrus peel EOs were added at 1 × MIC and 4 × MIC values to Sardina pilchardus (S. pilchardus) experimentally inoculated with S. aureus at a level of 3.5 log10 CFU/g and stored at 8 ± 1 °C. The results obtained revealed that the 4 × MIC value of bergamot reduced completely the growth of S. aureus from day 2 until the end of storage. The presence of EOs significantly extended lipid stability. Samples treated with bergamot EO displayed greater antioxidant activity than lemon EO. In fact, the oxidation rate is inversely proportional to the concentration of EO. At 1 × MIC and 4 × MIC values of bergamot EO, the levels of malonaldehyde compared to the control samples were 1.66 and 1.28 mg malonaldehyde/kg at the end of storage, corresponding to inhibition percentages of 42.76% and 55.87%, respectively. These results suggest the possibility that citrus EOs could be used as a way of combating the growth of common causes of food poisoning and used as potent natural preservatives to contribute to the reduction of lipid oxidation in sardines. View Full-Text
Keywords: citrus; essential oils; GC-MS; antibacterial and antioxidant activity; Staphylococcus aureus; Sardina pilchardus citrus; essential oils; GC-MS; antibacterial and antioxidant activity; Staphylococcus aureus; Sardina pilchardus
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Djenane, D. Chemical Profile, Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity of Algerian Citrus Essential Oils and Their Application in Sardina pilchardus. Foods 2015, 4, 208-228.

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