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Foods 2013, 2(4), 444-459; doi:10.3390/foods2040444

Behavior of Heat-Denatured Whey: Buttermilk Protein Aggregates during the Yogurt-Making Process and Their Influence on Set-Type Yogurt Properties

1 STELA Dairy Research Center, Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods (INAF), Laval University, Quebec City, QC, G1V 0A6, Canada 2 Dairy Products Technology Center (DPTC), California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93405, USA 3 Food Research and Development Center (FRDC), Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, St-Hyacinthe, QC, J2S 8E3, Canada These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 July 2013 / Revised: 18 September 2013 / Accepted: 22 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structure and Flavour of Dairy Products)
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The objective of this study was to assess the impact of using heat-denatured whey:buttermilk protein aggregate in acid-set type yogurt production. Whey and buttermilk (25:75) protein concentrate was adjusted to pH 4.6, heated at 90 °C for 5 min, homogenized and freeze-dried. Set-type yogurts were prepared from skim milk standardized to 15% (w/v) total solids and 4.2% (w/v) protein using different levels of powdered skim milk or freeze-dried protein aggregate. The use of the protein aggregate significantly modified yogurt texture, but did not affect the water-holding capacity of the gel. Confocal laser-scanning microscope images showed the presence of large particles in milk enriched with protein aggregate, which directly affected the homogeneity of the clusters within the protein matrix. Thiol groups were freed during heating of the protein aggregate suspended in water, suggesting that the aggregates could interact with milk proteins during heating.
Keywords: yogurt; protein aggregates; texture properties; buttermilk yogurt; protein aggregates; texture properties; buttermilk
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Saffon, M.; Richard, V.; Jiménez-Flores, R.; Gauthier, S.F.; Britten, M.; Pouliot, Y. Behavior of Heat-Denatured Whey: Buttermilk Protein Aggregates during the Yogurt-Making Process and Their Influence on Set-Type Yogurt Properties. Foods 2013, 2, 444-459.

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