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This paper was retracted on 31 July 2013, see Foods 2013, 2(3), 350-351.

Foods 2013, 2(1), 64-75; doi:10.3390/foods2010064
Article

Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

1
, 2
, 3
, 4
, 2
 and 5,6,*
1 Department of Environmental Sciences, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh 2 Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia 7703, Bangladesh 3 Department of Public Health and Informatics, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh 4 Department of Chemistry, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh 5 School of Environmental Systems Engineering, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia 6 Department of Environmental Science, Z. H. Sikder University of Science & Technology, Bhedergonj, Shariatpur 8024, Bangladesh
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2012 / Revised: 5 February 2013 / Accepted: 6 February 2013 / Published: 21 February 2013
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Abstract

The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion), two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran) and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin) pesticide residues in twelve samples of three common vegetables (tomato, lady’s finger and brinjal). Pesticide residues ranged from below detectable limit (<0.01) to 0.36 mg/kg. Acephate, chlorpyrifos, ethion, carbaryl and cypermethrin were detected in only one sample, while co-occurrence occurred twice for fenitrothion and parathion. Apart from chlorpyrifos in tomato and cypermethrin in brinjal, all pesticide residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL). Hazard risk index (HRI) for ethion (10.12) and carbaryl (1.09) was found in lady’s finger and tomato, respectively. Rest of the pesticide residues were classified as not a health risk. A continuous monitoring and strict regulation should be enforced regarding control of pesticide residues in vegetables and other food commodities.
Keywords: pesticide residues; vegetables; health risk; health hazard; food safety; HRI; HPLC-PDA pesticide residues; vegetables; health risk; health hazard; food safety; HRI; HPLC-PDA
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Hossain, M.S.; Hossain, M.A.; Rahman, M.A.; Islam, M.M.; Rahman, M.A.; Adyel, T.M. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh. Foods 2013, 2, 64-75.

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