This paper was retracted on 31 July 2013, see Foods 2013, 2(3), 350-351.

Foods 2013, 2(1), 64-75; doi:10.3390/foods2010064

Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh

1 Department of Environmental Sciences, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh 2 Department of Applied Nutrition and Food Technology, Islamic University, Kushtia 7703, Bangladesh 3 Department of Public Health and Informatics, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka 1342, Bangladesh 4 Department of Chemistry, University of Dhaka, Dhaka 1000, Bangladesh 5 School of Environmental Systems Engineering, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia 6 Department of Environmental Science, Z. H. Sikder University of Science & Technology, Bhedergonj, Shariatpur 8024, Bangladesh
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 December 2012; in revised form: 5 February 2013 / Accepted: 6 February 2013 / Published: 21 February 2013
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Abstract: The present study was designed to assess the health risk of pesticide residues via dietary intake of vegetables collected from four top agro-based markets of Dhaka, Bangladesh. High performance liquid chromatography with a photo diode array detector (HPLC-PDA) was used to determine six organophosphorus (chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, parathion, ethion, acephate, fenthion), two carbamate (carbaryl and carbofuran) and one pyrethroid (cypermethrin) pesticide residues in twelve samples of three common vegetables (tomato, lady’s finger and brinjal). Pesticide residues ranged from below detectable limit (<0.01) to 0.36 mg/kg. Acephate, chlorpyrifos, ethion, carbaryl and cypermethrin were detected in only one sample, while co-occurrence occurred twice for fenitrothion and parathion. Apart from chlorpyrifos in tomato and cypermethrin in brinjal, all pesticide residues exceeded the maximum residue limit (MRL). Hazard risk index (HRI) for ethion (10.12) and carbaryl (1.09) was found in lady’s finger and tomato, respectively. Rest of the pesticide residues were classified as not a health risk. A continuous monitoring and strict regulation should be enforced regarding control of pesticide residues in vegetables and other food commodities.
Keywords: pesticide residues; vegetables; health risk; health hazard; food safety; HRI; HPLC-PDA


  • Retraction

    This paper was retracted on 31 July 2013 (PDF, 142 KB)

    The following article [1], doi: 10.3390/foods2010064, website:, has been retracted by the authors because of some major errors in broad field of pesticide residues identification and concentrations. During random cross check retention time of pesticides by HPLC did not match with the standards of detected pesticides. As a result concentration of all detected pesticides, maximum residue limits (MRLs) and health risk assessments were changed. All these errors made the article [1] as a wrong one. All authors have confirmed that the reported results produced using quite inappropriate procedures. As first author herein, I take full responsibility for the retraction of our experiments and any other errors in its contents, and would like to offer my apologies on behalf of my co-authors to the readership of Foods for any inconveniences caused by this retraction. [...]

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hossain, M.S.; Hossain, M.A.; Rahman, M.A.; Islam, M.M.; Rahman, M.A.; Adyel, T.M. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh. Foods 2013, 2, 64-75.

AMA Style

Hossain MS, Hossain MA, Rahman MA, Islam MM, Rahman MA, Adyel TM. Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh. Foods. 2013; 2(1):64-75.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hossain, Md. S.; Hossain, Md. A.; Rahman, Md. A.; Islam, Md. M.; Rahman, Md. A.; Adyel, Tanveer M. 2013. "Health Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues via Dietary Intake of Market Vegetables from Dhaka, Bangladesh." Foods 2, no. 1: 64-75.

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