Dent. J. 2013, 1(4), 41-60; doi:10.3390/dj1040041
Article

In Vitro Screening of the Apatite-Forming Ability, Biointeractivity and Physical Properties of a Tricalcium Silicate Material for Endodontics and Restorative Dentistry

Received: 26 September 2013; in revised form: 26 November 2013 / Accepted: 3 December 2013 / Published: 16 December 2013
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Aim: Calcium silicate-based materials are hydraulic self-setting materials with physico-chemical properties suitable for endodontic surgery and good biological/clinical outcomes. The study aim was to evaluate the bio-properties (biointeractivity and apatite-forming ability) and selected physical properties (porosity, water sorption, solubility, and setting time) of Biodentine, a tricalcium silicate material for endodontics and restorative dentistry, compared to that of ProRoot MTA (Mineral Trioxide Aggregate) as gold standard material. Methods: Biodentine and ProRoot MTA pastes were prepared and analyzed for calcium release and alkalinizing activity (3 h–28 days), setting time, water sorption, porosity, solubility, surface microstructure and composition, and apatite-forming ability in simulated body fluid. Results: Biodentine showed higher calcium release, alkalinizing activity, and solubility but higher open and apparent porosity, water sorption, and a markedly shorter setting time. Calcium phosphate (CaP) deposits were noted on material surfaces after short ageing times. A CaP coating composed of spherulites was detected after 28 days. The thickness, continuity, and Ca/P ratio of the coating differed markedly between the materials. Biodentine showed a coating composed by denser but smaller spherulites, while ProRoot MTA showed large but less dense aggregates of spherulitic deposits. Conclusions: Biodentine showed a pronounced ability to release calcium and extended alkalinizing activity interlinked with its noticeable porosity, water sorption, and solubility: open porosities provide a broad wet biointeractive surface for the release of the calcium and hydroxyl ions involved in the formation of a CaP mineral. Biodentine is a biointeractive tricalcium silicate material with interesting chemical-physical properties and represents a fast-setting alternative to the conventional calcium silicate MTA-like cements.
Keywords: calcium silicate cements; tricalcium silicate; Biodentine; ProRoot MTA; calcium release; calcium hydroxide; calcium phosphate deposits; porosity; solubility; water sorption; microanalysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gandolfi, M.G.; Siboni, F.; Polimeni, A.; Bossù, M.; Riccitiello, F.; Rengo, S.; Prati, C. In Vitro Screening of the Apatite-Forming Ability, Biointeractivity and Physical Properties of a Tricalcium Silicate Material for Endodontics and Restorative Dentistry. Dent. J. 2013, 1, 41-60.

AMA Style

Gandolfi MG, Siboni F, Polimeni A, Bossù M, Riccitiello F, Rengo S, Prati C. In Vitro Screening of the Apatite-Forming Ability, Biointeractivity and Physical Properties of a Tricalcium Silicate Material for Endodontics and Restorative Dentistry. Dentistry Journal. 2013; 1(4):41-60.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gandolfi, Maria G.; Siboni, Francesco; Polimeni, Antonella; Bossù, Maurizio; Riccitiello, Francesco; Rengo, Sandro; Prati, Carlo. 2013. "In Vitro Screening of the Apatite-Forming Ability, Biointeractivity and Physical Properties of a Tricalcium Silicate Material for Endodontics and Restorative Dentistry." Dent. J. 1, no. 4: 41-60.

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