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Inorganics 2017, 5(1), 16; doi:10.3390/inorganics5010016

On Mineral Retrosynthesis of a Complex Biogenic Scaffold

1
Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies, Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg, 79104 Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany
2
Physical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Konstanz, 78464 Konstanz, Germany
3
Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, University of Chile, 88208-08 Santiago, Chile
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andreas Taubert
Received: 26 January 2017 / Revised: 8 March 2017 / Accepted: 10 March 2017 / Published: 15 March 2017
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Abstract

Synergistic relations between organic molecules and mineral precursors regulate biogenic mineralization. Given the remarkable material properties of the egg shell as a biogenic ceramic, it serves as an important model to elucidate biomineral growth. With established roles of complex anionic biopolymers and a heterogeneous organic scaffold in egg shell mineralization, the present study explores the regulation over mineralization attained by applying synthetic polymeric counterparts (polyethylene glycol, poly(acrylic acid), poly(aspartic acid) and poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid)) as additives during remineralization of decalcified eggshell membranes. By applying Mg2+ ions as a co-additive species, mineral retrosynthesis is achieved in a manner that modulates the polymorph and structure of mineral products. Notable features of the mineralization process include distinct local wettability of the biogenic organic scaffold by mineral precursors and mineralization-induced membrane actuation. Overall, the form, structure and polymorph of the mineralization products are synergistically affected by the additive and the content of Mg2+ ions. We also revisit the physicochemical nature of the biomineral scaffold and demonstrate the distinct spatial distribution of anionic biomolecules associated with the scaffold-mineral interface, as well as highlight the hydrogel-like properties of mammillae-associated macromolecules. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomineral; calcium carbonate; crystallization; egg; polymer; liquid precursor; mineralization; scaffold biomineral; calcium carbonate; crystallization; egg; polymer; liquid precursor; mineralization; scaffold
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rao, A.; Arias, J.L.; Cölfen, H. On Mineral Retrosynthesis of a Complex Biogenic Scaffold. Inorganics 2017, 5, 16.

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