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Inorganics 2014, 2(1), 29-78; doi:10.3390/inorganics2010029
Review

Chemistry of Ammonothermal Synthesis

 and *
Received: 10 December 2013; in revised form: 21 January 2014 / Accepted: 27 January 2014 / Published: 28 February 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Inorganic Synthesis)
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Abstract: Ammonothermal synthesis is a method for synthesis and crystal growth suitable for a large range of chemically different materials, such as nitrides (e.g., GaN, AlN), amides (e.g., LiNH2, Zn(NH2)2), imides (e.g., Th(NH)2), ammoniates (e.g., Ga(NH3)3F3, [Al(NH3)6]I3 · NH3) and non-nitrogen compounds like hydroxides, hydrogen sulfides and polychalcogenides (e.g., NaOH, LiHS, CaS, Cs2Te5). In particular, large scale production of high quality crystals is possible, due to comparatively simple scalability of the experimental set-up. The ammonothermal method is defined as employing a heterogeneous reaction in ammonia as one homogenous fluid close to or in supercritical state. Three types of milieus may be applied during ammonothermal synthesis: ammonobasic, ammononeutral or ammonoacidic, evoked by the used starting materials and mineralizers, strongly influencing the obtained products. There is little known about the dissolution and materials transport processes or the deposition mechanisms during ammonothermal crystal growth. However, the initial results indicate the possible nature of different intermediate species present in the respective milieus.
Keywords: high pressure; high temperature; group III nitride semiconductors; ammonothermal synthesis high pressure; high temperature; group III nitride semiconductors; ammonothermal synthesis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Richter, T.M.M.; Niewa, R. Chemistry of Ammonothermal Synthesis. Inorganics 2014, 2, 29-78.

AMA Style

Richter TMM, Niewa R. Chemistry of Ammonothermal Synthesis. Inorganics. 2014; 2(1):29-78.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Richter, Theresia M.M.; Niewa, Rainer. 2014. "Chemistry of Ammonothermal Synthesis." Inorganics 2, no. 1: 29-78.

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