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Photonics 2016, 3(2), 16; doi:10.3390/photonics3020016

Continuous Emission Monitoring of Tetrafluoromethane Using Quantum Cascade Lasers

1
Norsk Elektro Optikk AS, Prost Stabels vei 22, Skedsmokorset 2019, Norway
2
NEO Monitors AS, Prost Stabels vei 22, Skedsmokorset 2019, Norway
3
Alcoa Inc., Alcoa Technical Center, 100 Technical Drive, Alcoa Center, PA 15069-0001, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 March 2016 / Revised: 29 March 2016 / Accepted: 29 March 2016 / Published: 1 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantum Cascade Lasers - Advances and New Applications)
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Abstract

Recent developments in quantum cascade lasers have enabled the development of new sensors for in-situ applications that have so far only been possible with extractive systems. In this work, a sensor is presented using a unique Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy approach to measure tetrafluoromethane, a strong greenhouse gas. The sensor was characterized in a laboratory environment indicating a long-term detection limit of 20 ppb·m and a short-term value of well below 10 ppb·m. To demonstrate the feasibility of the sensor in a real-world environment, it was installed at an Alcoa aluminum smelter. A co-located Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer allowed direct comparison measurements of both systems. General agreement between the two methods was observed, leading to the conclusion that the developed in-situ quantum cascade laser based sensor has the potential to continuously measure tetrafluoromethane at aluminum smelters. View Full-Text
Keywords: quantum cascade laser; emission monitoring; tetrafluoromethane; mid-infrared; spectroscopy; in-situ quantum cascade laser; emission monitoring; tetrafluoromethane; mid-infrared; spectroscopy; in-situ
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Geiser, P.; Avetisov, V.; Espinoza-Nava, L.; Menegazzo, N.; Kaspersen, P. Continuous Emission Monitoring of Tetrafluoromethane Using Quantum Cascade Lasers. Photonics 2016, 3, 16.

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