Photonics 2014, 1(3), 162-197; doi:10.3390/photonics1030162
Review

Monolithically Integrated Ge-on-Si Active Photonics

email
Received: 27 May 2014; in revised form: 19 June 2014 / Accepted: 19 June 2014 / Published: 2 July 2014
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3694 KB, uploaded 2 July 2014]
Abstract: Monolithically integrated, active photonic devices on Si are key components in Si-based large-scale electronic-photonic integration for future generations of high-performance, low-power computation and communication systems. Ge has become an interesting candidate for active photonic devices in Si photonics due to its pseudo-direct gap behavior and compatibility with Si complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) processing. In this paper, we present a review of the recent progress in Ge-on-Si active photonics materials and devices for photon detection, modulation, and generation. We first discuss the band engineering of Ge using tensile strain, n-type doping, Sn alloying, and separate confinement of Γ vs. L electrons in quantum well (QW) structures to transform the material towards a direct band gap semiconductor for enhancing optoelectronic properties. We then give a brief overview of epitaxial Ge-on-Si materials growth, followed by a summary of recent investigations towards low-temperature, direct growth of high crystallinity Ge and GeSn alloys on dielectric layers for 3D photonic integration. Finally, we review the most recent studies on waveguide-integrated Ge-on-Si photodetectors (PDs), electroabsorption modulators (EAMs), and laser diodes (LDs), and suggest possible future research directions for large-scale monolithic electronic-photonic integrated circuits on a Si platform.
Keywords: Ge; GeSi; GeSn; tensile strain; band engineering; integrated silicon photonics; optoelectronics; photodetectors; modulators; lasers
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, J. Monolithically Integrated Ge-on-Si Active Photonics. Photonics 2014, 1, 162-197.

AMA Style

Liu J. Monolithically Integrated Ge-on-Si Active Photonics. Photonics. 2014; 1(3):162-197.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Jifeng. 2014. "Monolithically Integrated Ge-on-Si Active Photonics." Photonics 1, no. 3: 162-197.

Photonics EISSN 2304-6732 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert