Next Article in Journal
On-Line Fabric Disk Sorptive Extraction via a Flow Preconcentration Platform Coupled with Atomic Absorption Spectrometry for the Determination of Essential and Toxic Elements in Biological Samples
Previous Article in Journal
Non-Destructive X-ray Spectrometric and Chromatographic Analysis of Metal Containers and Their Contents, from Ancient Macedonia
Article Menu
Issue 2 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Separations 2018, 5(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations5020033

Optimization and Application of a GC-MS Method for the Determination of Endocrine Disruptor Compounds in Natural Water

1
Centro de Investigaciones Químicas, Instituto de Investigación en Ciencias Básicas y Aplicadas, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, 62209 Cuernavaca, Mexico
2
Cátedras, Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología, Av. Insurgentes Sur 1582, Colonia Crédito Constructor, Del. Benito Juárez, 03940 Ciudad de México, Mexico
3
Laboratorio de Análisis y Sustentabilidad Ambiental, Escuela de Estudios Superiores de Xalostoc, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, 62715 Ayala, Morelos, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 April 2018 / Revised: 22 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 19 June 2018
Full-Text   |   PDF [658 KB, uploaded 19 June 2018]   |  

Abstract

Bisphenol A (BPA), 4-nonylphenol (4NP), estradiol (E2), and ethinylestradiol (EE2) are considered as endocrine disruptors or mutagens. These compounds are commonly called endocrine disrupter chemicals (EDCs). BPA and 4NP are widely used as plastic additives, lacquers, resins, or surfactants, while E2 is one of the predominant female sex hormones during the reproductive years, and EE2 is an estrogen derived from estradiol, used in the production of contraceptive pills. All of these can be usually found in wastewater. In Mexico, it is common for water from rivers, lakes, and canyons to be reused for different purposes. Unfortunately, there is little information on the concentration of many of the pollutants present in such bodies of water. To determine the presence of these compounds in samples of wastewater in the Apatlaco River, an accurate and reproducible method was developed by coupling gas chromatography to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A solid-phase extraction with Chromabond RP-18 cartridges was carried out, and the elution was performed with an acetone/methanol mixture. After isolation, the solvent was removed and a silylation step was carried out using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA). Recoveries for spiked samples were between 71.8% and 111.0%. The instrumental limits of detection (IDL) ranged between 24.7 and 37.0 ng mL−1. In total, 16 samples were taken in 2015 at the microbasin of the Apatlaco River, located in the state of Morelos. The maximum concentrations found were 4NP (85.5 ng mL−1), BPA (174.6 ng mL−1), E2 103.6 (ng mL−1), and EE2 (624.3 ng mL−1). View Full-Text
Keywords: endocrine disruptors; surface water; environmental risk; GC-MS endocrine disruptors; surface water; environmental risk; GC-MS
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ronderos-Lara, J.G.; Saldarriaga-Noreña, H.; Murillo-Tovar, M.A.; Vergara-Sánchez, J. Optimization and Application of a GC-MS Method for the Determination of Endocrine Disruptor Compounds in Natural Water. Separations 2018, 5, 33.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Separations EISSN 2297-8739 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top