Next Article in Journal
Optimization and Application of a GC-MS Method for the Determination of Endocrine Disruptor Compounds in Natural Water
Next Article in Special Issue
Method Development of Phosphorus and Boron Determination in Fertilizers by ICP-AES
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Food Sample Preparation for the Determination of Sulfonamides by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography: State-of-the-Art
Article Menu
Issue 2 (June) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Separations 2018, 5(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/separations5020032

Non-Destructive X-ray Spectrometric and Chromatographic Analysis of Metal Containers and Their Contents, from Ancient Macedonia

1
Laboratory of Physico-Chemical Studies & Archaeometry, Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki, 54013 Thessaloniki, Greece
2
Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Aristotle University, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
3
Department of Sculpture, National Archaeological Museum, 10682 Athens, Greece
4
Department of Mineralogy, Petrology and Economic Geology, School of Geology, Aristotle University, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
5
Department of Management and Conservation of Ecclesiastical Cultural Heritage Objects, University Ecclesiastical Academy of Thessaloniki, N. Plastira 65, 54250 Thessaloniki, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 April 2018 / Revised: 17 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 11 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research as Development Perspective)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2995 KB, uploaded 11 June 2018]   |  

Abstract

This work describes a holistic archaeometric approach to ancient Macedonian specimens. In the region of the ancient city Lete, the deceased members of a rich and important family were interred in a cluster of seven tombs (4th century BC). Among the numerous grave goods, there was also a set of metal containers preserving their original content. The physico-chemical analysis of the containers and their contents was performed in order to understand the purpose of their use. For the containers, Energy Dispersive micro-X-Ray Fluorescence (EDμXRF) spectroscopy was implemented taking advantage of its non-invasive character. The case (B35) and the small pyxis (B37) were made of a binary Cu-Sn alloy accompanied by a slight amount of impurities (Fe, Pb, As) and the two miniature bowls were made of almost pure Cu. For the study of the contents, a combination of EDμXRF, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Gas Chromatography—Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was carried out. Especially for the extraction of the volatile compounds, the Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (SPME) technique was used in the headspace mode. Because of the detection of Br, High Pressure Liquid Chromatography coupled to a Diode-Array-Detector (HPLC-DAD) was implemented, confirming the existence of the ancient dye shellfish purple (porphyra in Greek). The analytical results of the combined implementation of spectrometric and chromatographic analytical techniques of the metal containers and their contents expand our knowledge about the pharmaceutical practices in Macedonia during the 4th century BC. View Full-Text
Keywords: Derveni; Ancient Macedonia; micro-XRF; XRD; HPLC-DAD; HS-SPME/GC-MS; ancient medicines; ancient pharmaceuticals; shellfish purple; porphyra; high-tin bronzes; bronzes Derveni; Ancient Macedonia; micro-XRF; XRD; HPLC-DAD; HS-SPME/GC-MS; ancient medicines; ancient pharmaceuticals; shellfish purple; porphyra; high-tin bronzes; bronzes
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Katsifas, C.S.; Ignatiadou, D.; Zacharopoulou, A.; Kantiranis, N.; Karapanagiotis, I.; Zachariadis, G.A. Non-Destructive X-ray Spectrometric and Chromatographic Analysis of Metal Containers and Their Contents, from Ancient Macedonia. Separations 2018, 5, 32.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Separations EISSN 2297-8739 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top