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Separations 2017, 4(3), 24; doi:10.3390/separations4030024

Development of an Automated Method for Selected Aromas of Red Wines from Cold-Hardy Grapes Using Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry

1
Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
2
DuPont Crop Protection, Stine-Haskell Research Center, Newark, DE 19711, USA
3
Interdepartmental Toxicology Graduate Program, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
4
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 June 2017 / Revised: 15 June 2017 / Accepted: 30 June 2017 / Published: 5 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Microextraction Techniques for Sample Preparation)
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Abstract

The aroma profile of red wine is complex and research focusing on aroma compounds and their links to viticultural and enological practices is needed. Current research is limited to wines made from cold-hardy cultivars (interspecific hybrids of vinifera and native N. American grapes). The objective of this research was to develop a fully automated solid phase microextraction (SPME) method, using tandem gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-olfactometry for the simultaneous chemical and sensory analysis of volatile/semi-volatile compounds and aroma in cold-hardy red wines. Specifically, the effects of SPME coating selection, extraction time, extraction temperature, incubation time, sample volume, desorption time, and salt addition were studied. The developed method was used to determine the aroma profiles of seven selected red wines originating from four different cold-hardy grape cultivars. Thirty-six aroma compounds were identified from Maréchal Foch, St. Croix, Frontenac, Vincent, and a Maréchal Foch/Frontenac blend. Among these 36 aroma compounds, isoamyl alcohol, ethyl caproate, benzeneethanol, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl caproate are the top five most abundant aroma compounds. Olfactometry helps to identify compounds not identified by MS. The presented method can be useful for grape growers and wine makers for the screening of aroma compounds in a wide variety of wines and can be used to balance desired wine aroma characteristics. View Full-Text
Keywords: cold-hardy grapes; wine; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS); olfactometry; solid phase microextraction (SPME); aroma cold-hardy grapes; wine; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS); olfactometry; solid phase microextraction (SPME); aroma
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cai, L.; Rice, S.; Koziel, J.A.; Dharmadhikari, M. Development of an Automated Method for Selected Aromas of Red Wines from Cold-Hardy Grapes Using Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry. Separations 2017, 4, 24.

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