Next Article in Journal
Detecting Adulterated Commercial Sweet Sorghum Syrups with Ion Chromatography Oligosaccharide Fingerprint Profiles
Next Article in Special Issue
Postmortem Internal Gas Reservoir Monitoring Using GC×GC-HRTOF-MS
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
GC×GC-TOFMS for the Analysis of Metabolites Produced by Termites (Reticulitermes flavipes) Bred on Different Carbon Sources
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Separations 2016, 3(3), 21; doi:10.3390/separations3030021

Development of a Combined Heart-Cut and Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography System to Extend the Carbon Range of Volatile Organic Compounds Analysis in a Single Instrument

1
Wolfson Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratories, University of York, Heslington YO10 5DD, UK
2
National Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of York, York YO10 5DD, UK
3
Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, 22 Malaysia
4
School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Science, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, UK
5
Centre for Atmospheric Informatics and Emissions Technology, Cranfield University, Cranfield MK43 0AL, UK
6
Centre for Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences (COAS), School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
7
National Centre for Atmospheric Science, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shari Forbes
Received: 3 May 2016 / Revised: 29 June 2016 / Accepted: 1 July 2016 / Published: 20 July 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1781 KB, uploaded 20 July 2016]   |  

Abstract

The majority of atmospheric measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are usually limited to a small range, either in volatility or time resolution. A combined heart-cut gas chromatography (GC) with comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC×GC) instrument was developed, specifically to increase the number of VOCs analysed using a single instrument. The system uses valve based modulation and was fully automated, making it suitable for use in the field. A laboratory comparison to an existing dual-channel GC (DC-GC) instrument demonstrated that this new GC-GC×GC can accurately measure atmospheric mixing ratios of C 5 -C 13 VOC species with a wide range of functionalities. Approximately hourly field measurements were conducted at a remote marine atmospheric research station in Bachok, Malaysia. This region was shown to be influenced by clean marine air masses, local anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources and aged emissions transported from highly polluted South East Asian regions. A dramatic shift in air mass direction was observed each day associated with the development of a sea breeze, which influenced the diurnal profiles of species measured at the Bachok site. A proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was also deployed at Bachok and compared to the new GC-GC×GC instrument. Overall, the GC-GC×GC instrument has been shown to perform well in lab comparisons and during field observations. This represents a good compromise between volatility and high complexity o n l i n e measurements of VOCs. View Full-Text
Keywords: comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC); volatile organic compounds (VOCs); heart-cut; multidimensional gas chromatography; atmospheric analysis comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC); volatile organic compounds (VOCs); heart-cut; multidimensional gas chromatography; atmospheric analysis
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Dunmore, R.E.; Hopkins, J.R.; Lidster, R.T.; Mead, M.I.; Bandy, B.J.; Forster, G.; Oram, D.E.; Sturges, W.T.; Phang, S.-M.; Samah, A.A.; Hamilton, J.F. Development of a Combined Heart-Cut and Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography System to Extend the Carbon Range of Volatile Organic Compounds Analysis in a Single Instrument. Separations 2016, 3, 21.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Separations EISSN 2297-8739 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top