Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Development of a Combined Heart-Cut and Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography System to Extend the Carbon Range of Volatile Organic Compounds Analysis in a Single Instrument
Previous Article in Journal
A Sensitive LC-MS Method for Anthocyanins and Comparison of Byproducts and Equivalent Wine Content
Previous Article in Special Issue
A New Approach for the Characterization of Organic Residues from Stone Tools Using GC×GC-TOFMS
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Separations 2016, 3(2), 19; doi:10.3390/separations3020019

GC×GC-TOFMS for the Analysis of Metabolites Produced by Termites (Reticulitermes flavipes) Bred on Different Carbon Sources

1
Organic and Biological Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, University of Liège, Sart-Tilman, Liège B-4000, Belgium
2
Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Liège, Sart-Tilman, Liège B-4000, Belgium
3
Department of Functional and Evolutionary Entomology, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liège, Gembloux B-5030, Belgium
4
Department of Bio-Industries, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liège, Gembloux B-5030, Belgium
5
Department of Microbiology and Genomics, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liège, Gembloux B-5030, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shari Forbes
Received: 29 April 2016 / Revised: 17 May 2016 / Accepted: 19 May 2016 / Published: 13 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2615 KB, uploaded 13 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

More and more studies are dedicated to termites and their symbionts, to better understand how they efficiently produce energy from lignocellulose. In that context, a powerful analytical method was developed to perform the detection, separation and identification of compounds in the 1 µL fluid volume of the gut of the termite Reticulitermes flavipes. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS) was tested with three different column combinations: (1) low-polar/mid-polar; (2) polar/low-polar and (3) mid-polar/low-polar. The column set (3) offered the best separation and was chosen for further analysis and comparison study. Metabolites were detected in the samples, including amino acids, sugars, amines and organic acids. Samples collected from termites fed for 30 days on Avicel cellulose or xylan powder diets were analyzed and compared with the wood diet. Principal component analysis (PCA) of metabolite profiles demonstrated a separation of different clusters corresponding to the three different diets, with a similar trend for diets containing cellulose. The Analysis of variance (ANOVA) (one way-ANOVA and Tukey’s test) was used to compare compound levels between these three different diets. Significant differences were observed, including higher levels of aromatic derivatives in the wood diet and higher levels of sugar alcohols in the xylan diet. A higher accumulation of uric acid was observed with the artificial diets (cellulose and xylan), likely to be related to the nitrogen deficiency. The present study highlighted the capability of adaptation of the termite system to non-optimal carbon sources and the subsequent modification of the metabolite profile. These results demonstrate the potential interest to investigate metabolite profiling with state-of-the-art separation science tools, in order to extract information that could be integrated with other omics data to provide more insight into the termite-symbiont digestion system. View Full-Text
Keywords: termite; comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS); lignocellulose; xylan; reticulitermes flavipes termite; comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS); lignocellulose; xylan; reticulitermes flavipes
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Brasseur, C.; Bauwens, J.; Tarayre, C.; Millet, C.; Mattéotti, C.; Thonart, P.; Destain, J.; Francis, F.; Haubruge, E.; Portetelle, D.; Vandenbol, M.; De Pauw, E.; Focant, J.-F. GC×GC-TOFMS for the Analysis of Metabolites Produced by Termites (Reticulitermes flavipes) Bred on Different Carbon Sources. Separations 2016, 3, 19.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Separations EISSN 2297-8739 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top