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Processes 2016, 4(4), 39;

Algorithms for a Single Hormone Closed-Loop Artificial Pancreas: Challenges Pertinent to Chemical Process Operations and Control

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 Eighth St., Troy, NY 12180-3590, USA
Stanford University, 780 Welch Road, CJ320H MC 5776, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
Barbara Davis Center for Diabetes, University of Colorado, Denver, 1775 Aurora Court, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
Icahn School of Medicine at Mt. Sinai, 1 Gustave A. Levy Place, New York, NY 10029, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael Henson
Received: 6 September 2016 / Revised: 30 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 October 2016 / Published: 18 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomedical Systems Control)
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The development of a closed-loop artificial pancreas to regulate the blood glucose concentration of individuals with type 1 diabetes has been a focused area of research for over 50 years, with rapid progress during the past decade. The daily control challenges faced by someone with type 1 diabetes include asymmetric objectives and risks, and one-sided manipulated input action with frequent relatively fast disturbances. The major automation steps toward a closed-loop artificial pancreas include (i) monitoring and overnight alarms for hypoglycemia (low blood glucose); (ii) overnight low glucose suspend (LGS) systems to prevent hypoglycemia; and (iii) fully closed-loop systems that adjust insulin (and perhaps glucagon) to maintain desired blood glucose levels day and night. We focus on the steps that we used to develop and test a probabilistic, risk-based, model predictive control strategy for a fully closed-loop artificial pancreas. We complete the paper by discussing ramifications of lessons learned for chemical process systems applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: artificial pancreas; glucose control; type 1 diabetes artificial pancreas; glucose control; type 1 diabetes

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Bequette, B.W.; Cameron, F.; Baysal, N.; Howsmon, D.P.; Buckingham, B.A.; Maahs, D.M.; Levy, C.J. Algorithms for a Single Hormone Closed-Loop Artificial Pancreas: Challenges Pertinent to Chemical Process Operations and Control. Processes 2016, 4, 39.

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