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Processes 2016, 4(1), 2; doi:10.3390/pr4010002

Optimum Conditions for Microwave Assisted Extraction for Recovery of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity from Macadamia (Macadamia tetraphylla) Skin Waste Using Water

School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW 2258, Australia
These authors contributed equally to this work.
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael Henson
Received: 2 November 2015 / Accepted: 29 December 2015 / Published: 31 December 2015
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Abstract

This study aimed to develop optimal microwave assisted extraction conditions for recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties from the macadamia skin, an abundant waste source from the macadamia industry. Water, a safe, accessible, and inexpensive solvent, was used as the extraction solvent and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to design and analyse the conditions for microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The results showed that RSM models were reliable for the prediction of extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties. Within the tested ranges, MAE radiation time and power, as well as the sample-to-solvent ratio, affected the extraction efficiency of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins, and antioxidant properties of the macadamia skin; however, the impact of these variables was varied. The optimal MAE conditions for maximum recovery of TPC, flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and antioxidant properties from the macadamia skin were MAE time of 4.5 min, power of 30% (360 W) and sample-to-water ratio of 5 g/100 mL. Under these conditions, an extract could be prepared with TPC of 45 mg/g, flavonoids of 29 mg RUE/g of dried macadamia skin. View Full-Text
Keywords: by-products; macadamia; skin; waste; bioactive; antioxidant by-products; macadamia; skin; waste; bioactive; antioxidant
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Dailey, A.; Vuong, Q.V. Optimum Conditions for Microwave Assisted Extraction for Recovery of Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Capacity from Macadamia (Macadamia tetraphylla) Skin Waste Using Water. Processes 2016, 4, 2.

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