Processes 2014, 2(2), 494-525; doi:10.3390/pr2020494

Bioreactor Systems for Human Bone Tissue Engineering

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Received: 24 February 2014; in revised form: 19 April 2014 / Accepted: 24 April 2014 / Published: 11 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design of Bioreactor Systems for Tissue Engineering)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Critical size skeletal defects resulting from trauma and pathological disorders still remain a major clinical problem worldwide. Bone engineering aims at generating unlimited amounts of viable tissue substitutes by interfacing osteocompetent cells of different origin and developmental stage with compliant biomaterial scaffolds, and culture the cell/scaffold constructs under proper culture conditions in bioreactor systems. Bioreactors help supporting efficient nutrition of cultured cells and allow the controlled provision of biochemical and biophysical stimuli required for functional regeneration and production of clinically relevant bone grafts. In this review, the authors report the advances in the development of bone tissue substitutes using human cells and bioreactor systems. Principal types of bioreactors are reviewed, including rotating wall vessels, spinner flasks, direct and indirect flow perfusion bioreactors, as well as compression systems. Specifically, the review deals with: (i) key elements of bioreactor design; (ii) range of values of stress imparted to cells and physiological relevance; (iii) maximal volume of engineered bone substitutes cultured in different bioreactors; and (iv) experimental outcomes and perspectives for future clinical translation.
Keywords: human cells; stem cells; biomaterial scaffolds; spinner flasks; rotating wall vessels; flow perfusion bioreactors; compression systems; osteogenic differentiation; bone engineering; bone defects; skeletal reconstructions
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sladkova, M.; de Peppo, G.M. Bioreactor Systems for Human Bone Tissue Engineering. Processes 2014, 2, 494-525.

AMA Style

Sladkova M, de Peppo GM. Bioreactor Systems for Human Bone Tissue Engineering. Processes. 2014; 2(2):494-525.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sladkova, Martina; de Peppo, Giuseppe M. 2014. "Bioreactor Systems for Human Bone Tissue Engineering." Processes 2, no. 2: 494-525.

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