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Biomedicines 2016, 4(3), 19; doi:10.3390/biomedicines4030019

Recombinant Poxvirus and the Tumor Microenvironment: Oncolysis, Immune Regulation and Immunization

1
Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903-2681, USA
2
Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Department of Surgery, Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903-2681, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Zong Sheng Guo
Received: 14 July 2016 / Revised: 8 August 2016 / Accepted: 10 August 2016 / Published: 12 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses as a Novel Form of Immunotherapy for Cancer)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2369 KB, uploaded 12 August 2016]   |  

Abstract

Oncolytic viruses (OVs) are being extensively studied for their potential roles in the development of cancer therapy regimens. In addition to their direct lytic effects, OVs can initiate and drive systemic antitumor immunity indirectly via release of tumor antigen, as well as by encoding and delivering immunostimulatory molecules. This combination makes them an effective platform for the development of immunotherapeutic strategies beyond their primary lytic function. Engineering the viruses to also express tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) allows them to simultaneously serve as therapeutic vaccines, targeting and amplifying an immune response to TAAs. Our group and others have shown that vaccinating intratumorally with a poxvirus that encodes TAAs, in addition to immune stimulatory molecules, can modulate the tumor microenvironment, overcome immune inhibitory pathways, and drive both local and systemic tumor specific immune responses. View Full-Text
Keywords: oncolytic viruses; immunotherapy; GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor); TRICOM (triad of costimulatory molecules); tumor microenvironment; poxvirus; vaccinia oncolytic viruses; immunotherapy; GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor); TRICOM (triad of costimulatory molecules); tumor microenvironment; poxvirus; vaccinia
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sharp, D.W.; Lattime, E.C. Recombinant Poxvirus and the Tumor Microenvironment: Oncolysis, Immune Regulation and Immunization. Biomedicines 2016, 4, 19.

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