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Biomedicines 2016, 4(3), 18; doi:10.3390/biomedicines4030018

From Benchtop to Bedside: A Review of Oncolytic Virotherapy

1
Department of Surgery, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
2
Center for Gene Therapy, Department of Hematology and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, Beckman Research Institute, City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA 91010, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Zong Sheng Guo
Received: 30 June 2016 / Revised: 28 July 2016 / Accepted: 29 July 2016 / Published: 2 August 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oncolytic Viruses as a Novel Form of Immunotherapy for Cancer)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [264 KB, uploaded 2 August 2016]

Abstract

Oncolytic viruses (OVs) demonstrate the ability to replicate selectively in cancer cells, resulting in antitumor effects by a variety of mechanisms, including direct cell lysis and indirect cell death through immune-mediate host responses. Although the mechanisms of action of OVs are still not fully understood, major advances have been made in our understanding of how OVs function and interact with the host immune system, resulting in the recent FDA approval of the first OV for cancer therapy in the USA. This review provides an overview of the history of OVs, their selectivity for cancer cells, and their multifaceted mechanism of antitumor action, as well as strategies employed to augment selectivity and efficacy of OVs. OVs in combination with standard cancer therapies are also discussed, as well as a review of ongoing human clinical trials. View Full-Text
Keywords: oncolytic viruses; immunotherapy; virotherapy oncolytic viruses; immunotherapy; virotherapy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Choi, A.H.; O’Leary, M.P.; Fong, Y.; Chen, N.G. From Benchtop to Bedside: A Review of Oncolytic Virotherapy. Biomedicines 2016, 4, 18.

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