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Biomedicines 2013, 1(1), 3-16; doi:10.3390/biomedicines1010003

Beyond Gene Delivery: Strategies to Engineer the Surfaces of Viral Vectors

Laboratory of Immunovirotherapy, Division of Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00760, Finland
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 November 2013 / Revised: 22 November 2013 / Accepted: 26 November 2013 / Published: 4 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
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Viral vectors have been extensively studied due to their great transduction efficiency compared to non-viral vectors. These vectors have been used extensively in gene therapy, enabling the comprehension of, not only the advantages of these vectors, but also the limitations, such as the activation of the immune system after vector administration. Moreover, the need to control the target of the vector has led to the development of chemical and non-chemical modifications of the vector surface, allowing researchers to modify the tropism and biodistribution profile of the vector, leading to the production of viral vectors able to target different tissues and organs. This review describes recent non-genetic modifications of the surfaces of viral vectors to decrease immune system activation and to control tissue targeting. The developments described herein provide opportunities for applications of gene therapy to treat acquired disorders and genetic diseases and to become useful tools in regenerative medicine.
Keywords: viral vectors; gene therapy; surface modification; polymers; peptides viral vectors; gene therapy; surface modification; polymers; peptides
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Capasso, C.; Hirvinen, M.; Cerullo, V. Beyond Gene Delivery: Strategies to Engineer the Surfaces of Viral Vectors. Biomedicines 2013, 1, 3-16.

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