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Healthcare 2017, 5(1), 12; doi:10.3390/healthcare5010012

Minerals and Trace Elements Intakes and Food Consumption Patterns of Young Children Living in Rural Areas of Tibet Autonomous Region, P.R. China: A Cross-Sectional Survey

1
Analytical chemistry, Gembloux Agro Bio Tech—University of Liege, Passage des Deportes, 2, B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium
2
Kashin-Beck Disease Fund Asbl-Vzw, Rue de l’Aunee, 6, B-6953 Forrieres, Belgium
3
China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Panjiayuan Nanli, 7, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100021, China
4
School of Population Health, University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
5
SBIM and Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire en Biologie Humaine et Moleculaire, Free University of Brussels, route de Lennik, 808, B-1070 Brussels, Belgium
6
CIRIHA, Haute Ecole Lucia de Brouckere, Avenue Emile Gryzon, 1, B-1070 Brussels, Belgium
7
Center for Disease Control and Prevention—North Lin Kuo Road 21, Lhasa 850000, China
8
Kashin-Beck Disease Foundation, Gakyiling Hotel, Tuanjie Xincun, Sera Road, Lhasa 850000, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sampath Parthasarathy
Received: 15 September 2016 / Revised: 4 January 2017 / Accepted: 5 January 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet Quality)
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Abstract

Background and objectives: Several studies revealed clinical signs of stunting and rickets among rural populations of Tibet Autonomous Region (T.A.R.), and especially amid children. Further, these populations are affected by a bone disease named Kashin-Beck disease (KBD). However, little is known about the dietary status of this population. This survey aimed to assess the usual intakes of young Tibetan children living in rural areas around Lhasa for energy, water, and ten minerals and trace elements (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, and Se) involved in bone metabolism. Design: A cross-sectional survey was designed. Totally, 250 pre-school children aged 3–5 years living in rural areas were enrolled. The 24-h food recall method was used to collect the intakes for two days, during two different seasons (September 2012 and April 2013). Because Tibetan foods are mainly derived from local agriculture and artisanal production, a combination of food composition tables was compiled, including specific and local food composition data. Results: The Chinese dietary recommended intakes are not met for most of the elements investigated. Intake of sodium is much too high, while usual intakes are too low for K, Ca, Zn, Cu, and Se. Bioavailability of Ca, Fe, and Zn may be of concern due to the high phytic acid content in the diet. Conclusion: These nutrient imbalances may impact growth and bone metabolism of young Tibetan children. The advantages of the implementation of food diversification programs are discussed as well as the relevance of supplements distribution. View Full-Text
Keywords: 24-h food recall; cross-sectional survey; minerals; trace elements; usual intakes; preschool children; Kashin-Beck disease; Tibet Autonomous Region 24-h food recall; cross-sectional survey; minerals; trace elements; usual intakes; preschool children; Kashin-Beck disease; Tibet Autonomous Region
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Dermience, M.; Mathieu, F.; Li, X.W.; Vandevijvere, S.; Claus, W.; De Maertelaer, V.; Dufourny, G.; Bin, L.; Yangzom, D.; Lognay, G. Minerals and Trace Elements Intakes and Food Consumption Patterns of Young Children Living in Rural Areas of Tibet Autonomous Region, P.R. China: A Cross-Sectional Survey. Healthcare 2017, 5, 12.

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