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Healthcare 2014, 2(1), 60-73; doi:10.3390/healthcare2010060
Review

Established and Emerging Biomarkers in Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

1
,
1,2
 and
1,*
1 Dermatological Sciences, Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4HH, UK 2 The James Cook University Hospital, South Tees Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough, TS4 3BW, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 September 2013 / Revised: 4 December 2013 / Accepted: 7 January 2014 / Published: 14 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Melanoma and Neoplasms of Skin)
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Abstract

In an era of personalized medicine, disease specific biomarkers play an increasing role in the stratification of high-risk patient groups. Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer with an ever-increasing global incidence, especially in patients under 35-years of age. Despite the excellent prognosis for patients diagnosed with early stage disease, metastatic disease still carries significant overall mortality. Biomarkers aim not only to identify high-risk patients, but also to provide potential therapeutic targets for differing patient subgroups. Furthermore, accessibility to tissue samples from a range of disease stages in malignant melanoma, unlike most other solid tissue tumours, provides the unique opportunity to explore the biology of tumour progression that may be relevant in the biology of cancer as a whole. Over the past decade, there have been major advances in targeted therapies, providing new avenues and hope to patients with this devastating disease. This review will focus on most up to date histological, serological and molecular biomarkers in malignant melanoma.
Keywords: cutaneous melanoma; malignancy; biomarkers cutaneous melanoma; malignancy; biomarkers
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Verykiou, S.; Ellis, R.A.; Lovat, P.E. Established and Emerging Biomarkers in Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma. Healthcare 2014, 2, 60-73.

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