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Modeling Melanoma In Vitro and In Vivo
The Centenary Institute, Newtown, New South Wales 2042, Australia
School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Georgetown, Penang, Malaysia
Discipline of Dermatology, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia
The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, Translational Research Institute, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4102, Australia
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 November 2013; in revised form: 7 December 2013 / Accepted: 10 December 2013 / Published: 23 December 2013
Abstract: The behavior of melanoma cells has traditionally been studied in vitro in two-dimensional cell culture with cells adhering to plastic dishes. However, in order to mimic the three-dimensional architecture of a melanoma, as well as its interactions with the tumor microenvironment, there has been the need for more physiologically relevant models. This has been achieved by designing 3D in vitro models of melanoma, such as melanoma spheroids embedded in extracellular matrix or organotypic skin reconstructs. In vivo melanoma models have typically relied on the growth of tumor xenografts in immunocompromised mice. Several genetically engineered mouse models have now been developed which allow the generation of spontaneous melanoma. Melanoma models have also been established in other species such as zebrafish, which are more conducive to imaging and high throughput studies. We will discuss these models as well as novel techniques that are relevant to the study of the molecular mechanisms underlying melanoma progression.
Keywords: melanoma; 3D models; spheroid models; animal models; xenograft models; genetically engineered mouse models (GEM); zebrafish models
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MDPI and ACS Style
Beaumont, K.A.; Mohana-Kumaran, N.; Haass, N.K. Modeling Melanoma In Vitro and In Vivo. Healthcare 2014, 2, 27-46.
Beaumont KA, Mohana-Kumaran N, Haass NK. Modeling Melanoma In Vitro and In Vivo. Healthcare. 2014; 2(1):27-46.
Beaumont, Kimberley A.; Mohana-Kumaran, Nethia; Haass, Nikolas K. 2014. "Modeling Melanoma In Vitro and In Vivo." Healthcare 2, no. 1: 27-46.