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Proteomes 2016, 4(1), 6; doi:10.3390/proteomes4010006

Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle: Focus on Insulin Resistance and Exercise Biology

The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3b, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark
Academic Editor: Jatin G. Burniston
Received: 16 November 2015 / Revised: 25 January 2016 / Accepted: 28 January 2016 / Published: 4 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Striated Muscle Proteomics)
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Abstract

Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence, of altered protein expressions profiles and/or their posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics offer enormous promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance and exercise-induced adaptation; however, skeletal muscle proteomics are challenging. This review describes the technical limitations of skeletal muscle proteomics as well as emerging developments in proteomics workflow with respect to samples preparation, liquid chromatography (LC), MS and computational analysis. These technologies have not yet been fully exploited in the field of skeletal muscle proteomics. Future studies that involve state-of-the-art proteomics technology will broaden our understanding of exercise-induced adaptations as well as molecular pathogenesis of insulin resistance. This could lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets. View Full-Text
Keywords: mass spectrometry; diabetes; exercise adaptations; post-translational modifications; glucose; fat; secretome mass spectrometry; diabetes; exercise adaptations; post-translational modifications; glucose; fat; secretome
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Deshmukh, A.S. Proteomics of Skeletal Muscle: Focus on Insulin Resistance and Exercise Biology. Proteomes 2016, 4, 6.

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