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Economies 2017, 5(4), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/economies5040040

Analyzing the Tourism–Energy–Growth Nexus for the Top 10 Most-Visited Countries

1
Department of Tourism Management, Atatürk University, 25240 Erzurum, Turkey
2
Department of Economics, Abdullah Gül University, 38080 Kayseri, Turkey
3
Department of Economics, St. Mary’s College of Maryland, St. Mary’s City, MD 20686, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Juan Ignacio Pulido-Fernández
Received: 6 September 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 30 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tourism Economics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [420 KB, uploaded 31 October 2017]

Abstract

By using the Emirmahmutoglu–Kose bootstrap Granger non-causality method, this study explores the directions of causality among tourist arrivals, tourism receipts, energy consumption and economic growth for the top 10 most-visited countries (France, the USA, Spain, China, Italy, Turkey, Germany, the United Kingdom, Russia, and Mexico) in the world. This study finds a variety of causal directions between the pair of analyzed variables for each country and the panel. Since cross-sectional dependence exists across the top countries for the analyzed variables, the bootstrap Granger causality test that accounts for the mentioned issue in the estimation process presumably produces reliable and accurate outputs. Further results and policy implications are discussed in this empirical study. View Full-Text
Keywords: Granger causality; tourist arrivals; tourism receipts; energy consumption; economic growth; the top 10 most-visited countries Granger causality; tourist arrivals; tourism receipts; energy consumption; economic growth; the top 10 most-visited countries
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Işik, C.; Doğan, E.; Ongan, S. Analyzing the Tourism–Energy–Growth Nexus for the Top 10 Most-Visited Countries. Economies 2017, 5, 40.

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