Next Article in Journal
Membrane-Cryogenic Post-Combustion Carbon Capture of Flue Gases from NGCC
Previous Article in Journal
Magnetic Resonance Lithography with Nanometer Resolution
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Technologies 2016, 4(2), 13; doi:10.3390/technologies4020013

Dry Separation of Palm Kernel and Palm Shell Using a Novel Five-Stage Winnowing Column System

1
Milling & Processing Unit, Engineering & Processing Research Division, Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Ministry of Plantation Industries & Commodities, 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Biomass Technology Unit, Engineering & Processing Research Division, Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Ministry of Plantation Industries & Commodities, 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Director General’s Office, Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Ministry of Plantation Industries & Commodities, 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Energy & Environment Unit, Engineering & Processing Research Division, Malaysian Palm Oil Board, Ministry of Plantation Industries & Commodities, 6, Persiaran Institusi, Bandar Baru Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Manoj Gupta
Received: 26 February 2016 / Revised: 11 April 2016 / Accepted: 13 April 2016 / Published: 20 April 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2965 KB, uploaded 20 April 2016]   |  

Abstract

The conventional separation system for the recovery of palm kernel from its palm shell–kernel mixture using water as process media generates a considerable amount of waste effluent that harms the environment. The aim of this study is to develop a dry separation process for the recovery of palm kernel by using winnowing columns. A commercial system consisting of a series of five winnowing columns was developed and installed at a local palm oil mill. The system parameters, including column height, blower capacity, airflow rate and mesh screen size for shell removal, were studied and optimized to ensure good separation of kernel and shell in the column to enable collection of different sizes of kernel and shell at each column outlet. The performance of the separation process was evaluated in terms of its kernel losses, dirt content and kernel recovery rate. The average kernel losses based on oil palm fresh fruit bunches processed were found to vary from 0.11 to 0.30 wt %, with most of the values obtained being below the targeted limit of 0.30 wt %. The dirt content was in the range 4.56–6.03 wt %, which was mostly below the targeted limit of 5.5 wt %. The kernel recovery rate was in the range 5.69–6.89 wt %, with most of the values achieving the minimum targeted limit of 6.00 wt %. The system operates under completely dry conditions and, therefore, produces zero waste effluent. View Full-Text
Keywords: dry separation system; winnowing column; kernel recovery; palm kernel; palm shell; palm oil mill dry separation system; winnowing column; kernel recovery; palm kernel; palm shell; palm oil mill
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mohamed Halim, R.; Ramli, R.; Che Mat, C.R.; Yuen May, C.; Abu Bakar, N.; Abdul Hadi, N. Dry Separation of Palm Kernel and Palm Shell Using a Novel Five-Stage Winnowing Column System. Technologies 2016, 4, 13.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Technologies EISSN 2227-7080 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top