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Climate 2018, 6(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/cli6030068

Leftover Spaces for the Mitigation of Urban Overheating in Municipal Beirut

1
Department of Natural Sciences, Lebanese American University, Beirut 13-5053, Lebanon
2
Department of Architecture and Design, Lebanese American University, Beirut 13-5053, Lebanon
3
Engineering Department, University of Roma TRE, Via della Vasca Navale 79, 00146 Rome, Italy
4
Agenzia Nazionale per le Nuove Tecnologie, L’energia e lo Sviluppo Economico Sostensibile (ENEA), Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 July 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
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Abstract

The Urban Heat Island phenomenon and urban overheating are serious consequences of urbanization resulting in impacts on thermal comfort levels, heat stress and even mortality. This paper builds on previous findings on the topic of non-constructible parcels, small vacant or built spaces in Municipal Beirut, some of which belong to the municipality while others are privately owned and which might be used for different functional purposes. This paper further examines the possibility of implementing cool surface or paving materials and urban vegetation to reduce air urban temperature, especially during the summer period and with the view to project the positive findings of this case study to the entire Municipal Beirut area. A numerical analysis using ENVI-met 4.0 investigates the thermal performance of these non-constructibles further to implementation of high reflective surfaces and urban vegetation on a broad neighborhood scale, taking the Bachoura District as a reference case for a typical summer day. The best air temperature reductions correspond to the use of cool material in areas that are far from buildings where there are no shadow effects. In some cases, the introduction of trees leads to an increase of the air temperature near the ground because they became an obstacle of the natural ventilation. Results show a maximum mitigation effect with the use of cool materials that lead to reductions in air temperatures up to 0.42 °C if used alone and up to 0.77 °C if used in combination with trees. Within the framework of an integrated approach to planning, this form of urban intervention aims for substantial overheating reduction. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban heat island; urban overheating; non-constructible parcels; cool surfaces; urban vegetation; ENVI-met; mitigation measures; Beirut urban heat island; urban overheating; non-constructible parcels; cool surfaces; urban vegetation; ENVI-met; mitigation measures; Beirut
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Kaloustian, N.; Aouad, D.; Battista, G.; Zinzi, M. Leftover Spaces for the Mitigation of Urban Overheating in Municipal Beirut. Climate 2018, 6, 68.

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