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Climate 2016, 4(3), 42; doi:10.3390/cli4030042

Diurnal and Seasonal Variation of Surface Urban Cool and Heat Islands in the Semi-Arid City of Erbil, Iraq

1
Department of Geography, Centre for Landscape and Climate Research, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
2
Department of Geography, Soran University, Kawa Street, Soran, Erbil 44008, Iraq
3
National Centre for Earth Observation, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yang Zhang
Received: 15 July 2016 / Revised: 12 August 2016 / Accepted: 26 August 2016 / Published: 1 September 2016
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Abstract

The influence of land surface temperature (LST) makes the near-surface layer of the troposphere a key driver of urban climate. This paper assesses the temporal formation of the daytime Surface Urban Cool Island (SUCI) and night-time Surface Urban Heat Island (SUHI) effect in Erbil, Iraq, situated in a semi-arid climate region. LST retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua and Terra and MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from January 2003 to December 2014 are analysed. The relationships of LST with NDVI and the Normalized Multi-band Drought Index (NMDI) are investigated in order to assess the influence of vegetation and moisture on the observed patterns of LST and the SUCI/SUHI. The results indicate that during the daytime, in summer, autumn and winter, densely built-up areas had lower LST acting as a SUCI compared to the non-urbanised area around the city. In contrast, at night-time, Erbil experienced higher LST and demonstrated a significant SUHI effect. The relationship between LST and NDVI is affected by seasonality and is strongly inverted during spring (r2 = 0.73; p < 0.01). Contrary to previous studies of semi-arid cities, a SUCI was detected, not only in the morning, but also during the afternoon. View Full-Text
Keywords: surface urban cool island (SUCI); urban heat island (UHI); urban climate; surface temperature; Erbil; remote sensing; semi-arid surface urban cool island (SUCI); urban heat island (UHI); urban climate; surface temperature; Erbil; remote sensing; semi-arid
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Rasul, A.; Balzter, H.; Smith, C. Diurnal and Seasonal Variation of Surface Urban Cool and Heat Islands in the Semi-Arid City of Erbil, Iraq. Climate 2016, 4, 42.

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