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Plants 2015, 4(3), 573-605; doi:10.3390/plants4030573

Sulfite Oxidase Activity Is Essential for Normal Sulfur, Nitrogen and Carbon Metabolism in Tomato Leaves

1
French Associates Institute for Agriculture and Biotechnology of Drylands, Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boqer Campus 84990, Israel
2
Migal-Galilee Technology Center, Southern Industrial Zone, POB831 Kiryat-Shmona 11016, Israel
3
Department of Plant Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, P.O.B. 26 Rehovot 76100, Israel
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Salma Balazadeh
Received: 7 June 2015 / Revised: 30 July 2015 / Accepted: 7 August 2015 / Published: 14 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Senescence)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1252 KB, uploaded 14 August 2015]   |  

Abstract

Plant sulfite oxidase [SO; E.C.1.8.3.1] has been shown to be a key player in protecting plants against exogenous toxic sulfite. Recently we showed that SO activity is essential to cope with rising dark-induced endogenous sulfite levels in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum/Solanum lycopersicum Mill. cv. Rheinlands Ruhm). Here we uncover the ramifications of SO impairment on carbon, nitrogen and sulfur (S) metabolites. Current analysis of the wild-type and SO-impaired plants revealed that under controlled conditions, the imbalanced sulfite level resulting from SO impairment conferred a metabolic shift towards elevated reduced S-compounds, namely sulfide, S-amino acids (S-AA), Co-A and acetyl-CoA, followed by non-S-AA, nitrogen and carbon metabolite enhancement, including polar lipids. Exposing plants to dark-induced carbon starvation resulted in a higher degradation of S-compounds, total AA, carbohydrates, polar lipids and total RNA in the mutant plants. Significantly, a failure to balance the carbon backbones was evident in the mutants, indicated by an increase in tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) cycle intermediates, whereas a decrease was shown in stressed wild-type plants. These results indicate that the role of SO is not limited to a rescue reaction under elevated sulfite, but SO is a key player in maintaining optimal carbon, nitrogen and sulfur metabolism in tomato plants. View Full-Text
Keywords: sulfite oxidase; dark-induced senescence; sulfur; nitrogen; carbon metabolism; lipid degradation sulfite oxidase; dark-induced senescence; sulfur; nitrogen; carbon metabolism; lipid degradation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Brychkova, G.; Yarmolinsky, D.; Batushansky, A.; Grishkevich, V.; Khozin-Goldberg, I.; Fait, A.; Amir, R.; Fluhr, R.; Sagi, M. Sulfite Oxidase Activity Is Essential for Normal Sulfur, Nitrogen and Carbon Metabolism in Tomato Leaves. Plants 2015, 4, 573-605.

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