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Plants 2014, 3(4), 543-558; doi:10.3390/plants3040543

Penium margaritaceum: A Unicellular Model Organism for Studying Plant Cell Wall Architecture and Dynamics

Department of Biology and Skidmore Microscopy Imaging Center, Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY 12866, USA
Received: 28 September 2014 / Revised: 16 October 2014 / Accepted: 6 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Cell Walls: Chemical and Metabolic Analysis)
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Abstract

Penium margaritaceum is a new and valuable unicellular model organism for studying plant cell wall structure and developmental dynamics. This charophyte has a cell wall composition remarkably similar to the primary cell wall of many higher plants and clearly-defined inclusive zones containing specific polymers. Penium has a simple cylindrical phenotype with a distinct region of focused wall synthesis. Specific polymers, particularly pectins, can be identified using monoclonal antibodies raised against polymers of higher plant cell walls. Immunofluorescence-based labeling is easily performed using live cells that subsequently can be returned to culture and monitored. This feature allows for rapid assessment of wall expansion rates and identification of multiple polymer types in the wall microarchitecture during the cell cycle. Cryofixation by means of spray freezing provides excellent transmission electron microscopy imaging of the cell, including its elaborate endomembrane and cytoskeletal systems, both integral to cell wall development. Penium’s fast growth rate allows for convenient microarray screening of various agents that alter wall biosynthesis and metabolism. Finally, recent successful development of transformed cell lines has allowed for non-invasive imaging of proteins in cells and for RNAi reverse genetics that can be used for cell wall biosynthesis studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: Penium; cell wall; pectin; live cell labeling; monoclonal antibody; protoplast; transformed cell lines Penium; cell wall; pectin; live cell labeling; monoclonal antibody; protoplast; transformed cell lines
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Domozych, D.S. Penium margaritaceum: A Unicellular Model Organism for Studying Plant Cell Wall Architecture and Dynamics. Plants 2014, 3, 543-558.

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