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Plants 2014, 3(4), 476-497; doi:10.3390/plants3040476

Quantifying the Effects of Photoperiod, Temperature and Daily Irradiance on Flowering Time of Soybean Isolines

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre (ECORC), 960 Carling Ave, Bldg 110, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0C6, Canada
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Received: 2 June 2014 / Revised: 10 September 2014 / Accepted: 14 October 2014 / Published: 7 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Reproductive Transition and Flower Development)
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Abstract

Soybean isolines with different combinations of photoperiod sensitivity alleles were planted in a greenhouse at different times during the year resulting in natural variation in daily incident irradiance and duration. The time from planting to first flower were observed. Mathematical models, using additive and multiplicative modes, were developed to quantify the effect of photoperiod, temperature, photoperiod-temperature interactions, rate of photoperiod change, and daily solar irradiance on flowering time. Observed flowering times correlated with predicted times (R2 = 0.92, Standard Error of the Estimate (SSE) = 2.84 d, multiplicative mode; R2 = 0.91, SSE = 2.88 d, additive mode). The addition of a rate of photoperiod change function and an irradiance function to the temperature and photoperiod functions improved the accuracy of flowering time prediction. The addition of a modified photoperiod function, which allowed for photoperiod sensitivity at shorter photoperiods, improved prediction of flowering time. Both increasing and decreasing rate of photoperiod change, as well as low levels of daily irradiance delayed flowering in soybean. The complete model, which included terms for the rate of photoperiod change, photoperiod, temperature and irradiance, predicted time to first flower in soybean across a range of environmental conditions with an SEE of 3.6 days when tested with independent data. View Full-Text
Keywords: Glycine max; soybean; flowering time; photoperiod; temperature; irradiance; phenology; modeling Glycine max; soybean; flowering time; photoperiod; temperature; irradiance; phenology; modeling
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cober, E.R.; Curtis, D.F.; Stewart, D.W.; Morrison, M.J. Quantifying the Effects of Photoperiod, Temperature and Daily Irradiance on Flowering Time of Soybean Isolines. Plants 2014, 3, 476-497.

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