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The Role of Temperature in the Growth and Flowering of Geophytes
Unité de Recherche EA 3900 BIOPI "Biologie des Plantes et Innovations", UFR des Sciences, Ilôt des Poulies, Jules Verne University of Picardie, 33 rue St-Leu, Amiens 80039, France
Present address: UMR 914 "Physiologie de Nutrition et Comportement Alimentaire", AgroParisTech, 16 rue Claude Bernard, Paris 75005, France
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 September 2013; in revised form: 9 September 2013 / Accepted: 16 October 2013 / Published: 1 November 2013
Abstract: Among several naturally occurring environmental factors, temperature is considered to play a predominant role in controlling proper growth and flowering in geophytes. Most of them require a “warm-cold-warm” sequence to complete their annual cycle. The temperature optima for flower meristem induction and the early stages of floral organogenesis vary between nine and 25 °C, followed, in the autumn, by a several-week period of lower temperature (4–9 °C), which enables stem elongation and anthesis. The absence of low temperature treatment leads to slow shoot growth in spring and severe flowering disorders. Numerous studies have shown that the effects of the temperature surrounding the underground organs during the autumn-winter period can lead to important physiological changes in plants, but the mechanism that underlies the relationship between cold treatment and growth is still unclear. In this mini-review, we describe experimental data concerning the temperature requirements for flower initiation and development, shoot elongation, aboveground growth and anthesis in bulbous plants. The physiological processes that occur during autumn-winter periods in bulbs (water status, hormonal balance, respiration, carbohydrate mobilization) and how these changes might provoke disorders in stem elongation and flowering are examined. A model describing the relationship between the cold requirement, auxin and gibberellin interactions and the growth response is proposed.
Keywords: bulb; geophytes; temperature; flowering
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Khodorova, N.V.; Boitel-Conti, M. The Role of Temperature in the Growth and Flowering of Geophytes. Plants 2013, 2, 699-711.
Khodorova NV, Boitel-Conti M. The Role of Temperature in the Growth and Flowering of Geophytes. Plants. 2013; 2(4):699-711.
Khodorova, Nadezda V.; Boitel-Conti, Michèle. 2013. "The Role of Temperature in the Growth and Flowering of Geophytes." Plants 2, no. 4: 699-711.