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Towards the Physics of Calcium Signalling in Plants
Plants 2013, 2(4), 589-614; doi:10.3390/plants2040589
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Calcium Signals from the Vacuole

Department of Botany, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
Received: 19 August 2013 / Revised: 21 September 2013 / Accepted: 26 September 2013 / Published: 14 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Plants)
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Abstract

The vacuole is by far the largest intracellular Ca2+ store in most plant cells. Here, the current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of vacuolar Ca2+ release and Ca2+ uptake is summarized, and how different vacuolar Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ pumps may contribute to Ca2+ signaling in plant cells is discussed. To provide a phylogenetic perspective, the distribution of potential vacuolar Ca2+ transporters is compared for different clades of photosynthetic eukaryotes. There are several candidates for vacuolar Ca2+ channels that could elicit cytosolic [Ca2+] transients. Typical second messengers, such as InsP3 and cADPR, seem to trigger vacuolar Ca2+ release, but the molecular mechanism of this Ca2+ release still awaits elucidation. Some vacuolar Ca2+ channels have been identified on a molecular level, the voltage-dependent SV/TPC1 channel, and recently two cyclic-nucleotide-gated cation channels. However, their function in Ca2+ signaling still has to be demonstrated. Ca2+ pumps in addition to establishing long-term Ca2+ homeostasis can shape cytosolic [Ca2+] transients by limiting their amplitude and duration, and may thus affect Ca2+ signaling.
Keywords: vacuole; ligand-gated Ca2+ channel; SV channel; cyclic nucleotide-gated channel; Ca2+:H+ exchanger; P-type Ca2+-ATPase vacuole; ligand-gated Ca2+ channel; SV channel; cyclic nucleotide-gated channel; Ca2+:H+ exchanger; P-type Ca2+-ATPase
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Schönknecht, G. Calcium Signals from the Vacuole. Plants 2013, 2, 589-614.

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