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Towards the Physics of Calcium Signalling in Plants
Plants 2013, 2(4), 589-614; doi:10.3390/plants2040589

Calcium Signals from the Vacuole

Received: 19 August 2013; in revised form: 21 September 2013 / Accepted: 26 September 2013 / Published: 14 October 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Calcium Signaling in Plants)
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Abstract: The vacuole is by far the largest intracellular Ca2+ store in most plant cells. Here, the current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of vacuolar Ca2+ release and Ca2+ uptake is summarized, and how different vacuolar Ca2+ channels and Ca2+ pumps may contribute to Ca2+ signaling in plant cells is discussed. To provide a phylogenetic perspective, the distribution of potential vacuolar Ca2+ transporters is compared for different clades of photosynthetic eukaryotes. There are several candidates for vacuolar Ca2+ channels that could elicit cytosolic [Ca2+] transients. Typical second messengers, such as InsP3 and cADPR, seem to trigger vacuolar Ca2+ release, but the molecular mechanism of this Ca2+ release still awaits elucidation. Some vacuolar Ca2+ channels have been identified on a molecular level, the voltage-dependent SV/TPC1 channel, and recently two cyclic-nucleotide-gated cation channels. However, their function in Ca2+ signaling still has to be demonstrated. Ca2+ pumps in addition to establishing long-term Ca2+ homeostasis can shape cytosolic [Ca2+] transients by limiting their amplitude and duration, and may thus affect Ca2+ signaling.
Keywords: vacuole; ligand-gated Ca2+ channel; SV channel; cyclic nucleotide-gated channel; Ca2+:H+ exchanger; P-type Ca2+-ATPase vacuole; ligand-gated Ca2+ channel; SV channel; cyclic nucleotide-gated channel; Ca2+:H+ exchanger; P-type Ca2+-ATPase
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Schönknecht, G. Calcium Signals from the Vacuole. Plants 2013, 2, 589-614.

AMA Style

Schönknecht G. Calcium Signals from the Vacuole. Plants. 2013; 2(4):589-614.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schönknecht, Gerald. 2013. "Calcium Signals from the Vacuole." Plants 2, no. 4: 589-614.

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