Plants 2012, 1(2), 82-99; doi:10.3390/plants1020082
Review

Tungsten Toxicity in Plants

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Received: 3 September 2012; in revised form: 9 November 2012 / Accepted: 13 November 2012 / Published: 16 November 2012
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Journal Plants - Feature Papers)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Tungsten (W) is a rare heavy metal, widely used in a range of industrial, military and household applications due to its unique physical properties. These activities inevitably have accounted for local W accumulation at high concentrations, raising concerns about its effects for living organisms. In plants, W has primarily been used as an inhibitor of the molybdoenzymes, since it antagonizes molybdenum (Mo) for the Mo-cofactor (MoCo) of these enzymes. However, recent advances indicate that, beyond Mo-enzyme inhibition, W has toxic attributes similar with those of other heavy metals. These include hindering of seedling growth, reduction of root and shoot biomass, ultrastructural malformations of cell components, aberration of cell cycle, disruption of the cytoskeleton and deregulation of gene expression related with programmed cell death (PCD). In this article, the recent available information on W toxicity in plants and plant cells is reviewed, and the knowledge gaps and the most pertinent research directions are outlined.
Keywords: actin microfilaments; endoplasmic reticulum stress; unfolded protein response; microtubules; mitosis; molybdenum cofactor; programmed cell death; tungsten toxicity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Adamakis, I.-D.S.; Panteris, E.; Eleftheriou, E.P. Tungsten Toxicity in Plants. Plants 2012, 1, 82-99.

AMA Style

Adamakis I-DS, Panteris E, Eleftheriou EP. Tungsten Toxicity in Plants. Plants. 2012; 1(2):82-99.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S.; Panteris, Emmanuel; Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P. 2012. "Tungsten Toxicity in Plants." Plants 1, no. 2: 82-99.

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